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Social Psychology Week 2 Notes

by: Bailey Anderson

Social Psychology Week 2 Notes PSY 270-001

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These notes cover Chapter 2 as well as the beginning of Chapter 3.
psy orientation soc psy
Dr. Sheets
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Anderson on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270-001 at Indiana State University taught by Dr. Sheets in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see psy orientation soc psy in Psychology at Indiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Social Psychology Week 2 Chapter 2  Who are you? ­ Physical body?, personality traits?, social roles?, decision making part of  mind?  What is the self? o Myers: self­concept= everything we know and believe about selves  “Unified” array of conscious knowledge about self  Does this exist?  Not “one” self, but many  H. Markus: current self + possible selves  D. Kenrick: “selves”= motives (mate, parent) as many selves as  motives  W. James: as many selves as those who know you (act differently  in front of different people)  “True” self­ the self that you feel you have that you don’t feel able  to express in your social group (that no one knows)  Some study global info in self; others aspects/functions  Self­schemas=(cognitive)  beliefs we have that we use to organize  all of the info about the self (key personality traits)   Self­ esteem= (affect) value we place on the self o Where do beliefs/schemas come from?  Knowledge of  behavior (self­perception/experience)  Social roles  Accept behavior with roles we hold & alter beliefs  Culture (individualistic vs collectivistic)  Individualistic: people define themselves as individuals first   Collectivistic: define people in terms of social connections and less in terms of individual people  Western (object) vs Asian (environment): aquarium People from west would describe individual fish and people from Asia would describe the aquarium environment  Shown objects against different backgrounds: Asians did worse  because they were taking in the whole picture not just the one  object  Social comparison with others  Absent objective evidence of performance, compare with others  (our “reference” group)  Upward= comparing with people “better off”. Usually happens in a novel situation, life transition= inspiring  Other people’s judgements (reflected appraisals)  Study (2  or 5 ) Group1:“You are neat and clean”, or Group 2:  “You should be neat and clean” Teachers told their students one of  these phrases or said nothing (group 3). Candy was given to  students and researchers saw how many wrappers actually got into  the trash. Group 1 and 2 both went up in cleanliness. After the  teachers stopped saying those phrases, group 1 kept going up but  group 2 went down. This is because it changed their sense of self  making them believe that they were neat and clean people.  o Self­referent effect­ we process information about self more efficiently and  remember it better (word memory game we played in class)  Perhaps constant “self­access” = spotlight effect (people notice us)  Klek & Strenta (1980): react to facial scars  Women given scar+ shown mirror, then wiped off (w/o knowing)  believed partners were “distant and patronizing” but no evidence  Views of self (self­schema) affect processing new info  Relates to fundamental theme of course: we share social reality  Honest: Lake Wobegon­ Prairie Home Companion = books  US News & World report survey: how likely is it that ___is going to  heaven?  OJ Simpson, 19%  Bill Clinton, 52%  Oprah Winfrey, 60%  Mother Teresa, 79%  Self, 87%  Self­esteem= sense of self­worth or value o Most view self positively even inflated  We’re going to heaven even is Mother Theresa isn’t o Overconfidence (knowledge/ability) o Study: men made to feel good or bad (IQ test)­ grade a test and give positive  feedback and say “we should give you a break!” vs grade a test and make a lot of  marks on page and say “maybe we should take a break…”­ during break went down to lounge and a woman came in either looking above average or average. Research  assistant introduces them and then leaves. Measure romantic behavior from male to  female. Guy w/ high self­esteem­ more romantic behavior when woman was above  average and less behavior when unattractive. Guy with low self­esteem had the  opposite behavior o Feelings about self­matter even in virtual reality  People given attractive avatar moved closer to others and shared more into in game  And effect carried over to real life  Where chose more attractive partners (Yee) o Much attention made to improving SE  Low SE= depression and drug use  High SE= increased aggression when threatened o Baumeister, major researcher  Forget SE, focus on self­control and discipline  o Probably right in no need to foster (in most people) o How do we maintain (overly) positive view?  Selective attentional focus  Focus attention on positive aspects of self  Baseball video­ couldn’t hit the ball but could throw it  Self­serving bias (attributions)  Attribution= explanation for behavior  2 types­ external (situational): explaining as being something in the  situation; internal (dispositional): it’s because of who you are  Internal for success; external for failure (when you ace an exam it’s  because you’re smart, if you fail it’s because you were up late  because of some circumstance)  Selective (downward) social comparisons  We can choose our comparisons  If self is threatened, may choose “downward”  Self­presentation strategies (to get + appraise) o Self­handicapping: doing things that make you perform badly but give you an  excuse o False modesty: downplaying what you believe is your inner goodness so that other  people will be more impressed “I think I’m good but I’m not going to present  myself that way” o Basking in reflected glory (BIRGing)  We identify with winners even when not responsible o Cutting off reflected failure (CORFing)  Removing self from losers who you are connected to – “we won” or  “they lost” o Boosting   Students would come into lab and read an article about Rasputin  (devious, negative monk) and rating him on personality qualities.  Two groups of students: 1­biography read would be accurate, 2­  biography read would have same birthday as the students did. Group  2 rated him higher than students in group 1. o Self ­monitor: monitor others to adjust behavior  Hi=use cues from others to modify presentation­ different in  different situations (what do I need to be?)­tend to have diff friends  for diff activities­ influence able or adaptive  Lo= use cues from self to behave­ consistent across situations (how  can I be me?)­ tend to have same friends­rigid or honest  How accurate is our self­knowledge? o Turns out, not very, don’t know why we do the things we do; factors that influence us explanations often wrong (e.g., “right­hand bias”) o Not very good predictors of behavior­often, close others do better  Impact bias= overestimate duration/intensity of emotions  Planning fallacy=underestimate time for tasks  How to fight?: Break it down into sub pieces; more realistic estimates Chapter 3: Social Beliefs and Judgments  Forming impressions o Hal Kelly (based on earlier work by S Asch) invited a guest speaker to class:  before­ half class “warm”, half class “cold” speaker presented a lecture and  answered questions. Impressions of presentation changed due to being told he was  “warm” or “cold”. Also less participation in Q&A session when told speaker was  “cold” o Related study: SS saw tests of 1 of 3 people scoring 15/30. #1: 10 of 1  15 right.  #2: 5 of 1  15 right. #3: 7 of 1  15 right  Who was the most competent/knowledgeable?­ #1  Primacy effect­ 1  information has > impact  How do first impressions have such impact? o Basically, first impressions create “schema” with which to understand later  information  Impt of “belief/expectations” on perception: stairway to heaven video  Once we have belief (see pattern), can’t get away from it.  o To understand why, we have to understand aspects of cognition  Confirmation bias o Once impression /belief, look for confirmation(support impress), may support  overconfidence­tendency to believe right o A “real world” study (Rosenhan):  RAs checked into mental hospital for “hearing voices” started reading,  taking notes­no symptoms  Staff interpreted behavior (&accurate life history) as evidence of disorder  of paranoia   Moreover, with rationale, we even ignore disconfirming evidence  Logic of argument withstands loss of evidence  Belief Perseverance Phenomenon o Do risky people make good or poor firemen? o Study: falsehoods (study shows risky makes good/poor firemen)  Students had to make an explanation pertaining to the firemen and then told  original data was wrong. Students still stood by their original belief o Houdini & Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (history channel)  Believed he had supernatural powers and then Houdini told them they were  just tricks and not real and they still believed the same


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