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Chapter 2

by: Kaitlyn Notetaker
Kaitlyn Notetaker
GPA 3.86

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These notes will be on our first exam on the 19th of this month!
Animal Science
Dr. Larson
Class Notes
animal, Science
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ADS 1113 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Larson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Animal Science in Animal and Dairy Science at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 09/03/16
Chapter 2: An Overview of the Livestock and Poultry Industries  Learning Objectives: o Quantify the economic impact of the U.S. livestock industry. o Describe the role of international trade in livestock and livestock production  Not as important as the other 3 o Overview the international and domestic beef, dairy, horse, poultry, sheep, goat, and swine industries. o Overview nontraditional livestock enterprises  Table 2.1 in book. Know all! Table Female Uncastrated Male Castrated Male 2.1 Species Young Mature Young Mature Young Mature Cattle Heifer Cow Bull Bull Steer Stag Chicke Chick/Pull Hen Chick/ Cock/Roos Capon ---------- n et Cockerel ter -- Goat Doe Doe Buck Buck Wether ---------- -- Horse Filly Mare Colt Stallion Gelding ---------- -- Sheep Ewe Ewe Ram Ram/Buck Wether Stag Swine Gilt Sow Boar Boar Barrow Stag Turkey Young Hen Young Tom ------------------- Hen/Poult Tom/Pou - -- lt  Farms have become less diverse and focus on more on large volumes of output  316 million U.S. consumers plus an export market=lots of products  Cash receipts=gross sales from specific enterprise or set of enterprises  Table 2.3 Rankings!! No values. Know states. Not number  How does MS compare o Top 20  #1 in catfish production ($185)  #5 Broilers ($2.88)  #18 Swine ($100) o Not top 20  Cattle and Calves  Eggs  Dairy  Horses  International trade o When looking at all products, we have a trade deficit o Looking at ag and animal products, we have a + trade balance o Leading destinations for exports  China  Canada  Mexico  Japan  European Union  Commodity Pricing o Dramatic fluctuations in ag commodity pricing  Year to year and within a year (Changes)  Depends on several things  Supply and demand  Feed prices  Weather  Beef industry- # and production info o Cattle numbers #1 Brazil, #2 India, #3 US o Consumption  Consumption often follows numbers  India low because of religious beliefs o Production: #1 US, #2 Brazil, #3 China  US =20% of world’s beef but only 7% of world’s cattle  Brazil= 13% of world’s beef with 13% world’s cattle  Segments of Beef Indus o Seed stock  Cow-calf sector, provides genetic bases  More likely to produce pure bred o Commercial cow-calf  Cow-calf sector, uses genetic base to provide commercial calves o Stock-yearling  Grows calves to 600-850 lb., primarily on roughage o Feedlot  Feed to finished weight (900-1,300) lbs. on high energy rations o Packers  Slaughter finished cattle o Retailers  See product to consumer o Consumers  Pay store price and enjoy  Cow calf production o 75% cows in 14 states  Tend to follow forage production (plains, corn belt, and southeaster US)  68% of operations of less than 50 cows  70% of beef cow inventory is in operations with more than 100 cows o Two types of cow-calf operations  Seed stock produces calves go back into breeding herds  Commercial producers produce calves to go to feedlot and slaughter  Stocker yearling production o Optional o In between cow calf and feedlot o Feed cattle for growth (usually cheap gain) o Sometime cow calf operators retain ownership, other times this is a new owner o Sometimes this step is sipped altogether and calves go straight to feedlot  Feedlot Production o Compared to other sectors, feed is brought to animals  High-energy (concentrate) rations for fast gains  10 to 15% cattle are finished on forage (grass-fed beef) o Two-types  Commercial feeders  Usually owned by a corporation and more than 1,000 head capacity  Farmer-feeders  Usually owned by an individual less than 1,000 head capacity  95% of fed cattle are fed in this type  Some feedlots have capacities of 40,000 head and a few have 100,000+  Dairy Industry- # and productions o Number of dairy cattle #1 India, #2 brazil, #3 china o Fluid milk production: #1 US, #2 India, #3 China o Production per cow #1 Israel, #2 Saudi Arabia, #3 S. Korea, #4 US  Israel produces 5 times the world average per cow o Most trade is of manufactured products, not fluid milk  Dairy US o Average dairy has 135 milking cows and 200-300 acres of land for forage production  Market milk through member owned corporations  Large capital investment (cows, machinery, barns, milking parlors) o 75% of dairies are less than 100 cows but produce 14% of production o 6% of dairies are more than 500 cow but produce 60% production o Competitive advantage for large dairies because of the capital investments required o Big efficient dairies (west & southwest) are increasing o Small dairies are decreasing  Horse industry o Horses by #: #1 Us, #2 China, #3 Brazil o Donkeys and mules by the #: #1 China, #2 Ethiopia, #3 Mexico o Multiple purposes  First used for food, then war and sports, and also draft purposes  Companions since their domestication, more recently used for recreation o 9.2 million in US o 43% recreational o 29% show o 10% racing o Remainder in rodeo, polo, ranch work  Poultry o Applies to chickens, turkeys, geese, duck, pigeons, peafowls, and guinea o Number of broilers #1 US, #2 China, #3 Brazil o Turkey #1 Us #2 Brazil #3 Germany o Egg #1 China, #2 US #3 India o Us poultry export 5 billion o Us income from broilers turkey and eggs 35+ billion o MS #1 o Like diary industry, production more concentrated o Automation has made major impacts on production  Automatic feeding, watering, egg collection, packing, and manure removal all mechanized o First livestock industry where integration became common o While beef and dairy segmented, poultry, swine are very integrated  All phases are under control of one head often a corporation  Company provides birds, fed, marketing (ensures consistency)  Contractor provides houses, equipment, labor and then gets paid based on bird reared to market age  Sheep o #1 china, #2 India #3 Australia o Production China, Australia, New Zealand o US imports more lamb (mostly Australia and New Zealand) o More than we produce ourselves o Farm flock vs range-flock o Purebred breeder vs commercial breeder market lamb producer vs commercial feedlot operations o A lot smaller  Goat o # India, China, and Pakistan o Meat Produc China, Inida, Nigeria o Milk India, Indonesia, Bangladesth  Swine o China, US, Brazil o Produ China, US Germany o Cash receipts total 18 billionm o Nuber of operation decreased but number of animal increased, Productivity increased o 1-99 pigs in each operation, 62% have 5,000+ pigs o Integreated with poultry  Aquaculture o Catfish is largest o Bison o Elk o Ostrich and elk  Summary o The animal industries are described by numbers, cash, receipts per-capita, product, consumption, and their contribution to world trade. o US farm cash receipts were $395.1 billion with livestock contributing $171 billion. Cash receipts or the major livestock species were cattle ($67.9 bil), dairy products ($37 bil), broilers ($24.7 bil), hogs ($22.1 bil), and turkeys ($5.4 bil). o The major animal industries are becoming more integrated and concentrated. The poultry industry is high integrated and swine production units continue to become larger. In the beef cattle industry, four major packers slaughter most of the cattle: however, most of the cattle are produced in herd sizes of less than 100 cows. o Sheep numbers have shown a significant dcline in the past 50 years. Dairy cow numbers have decreased; however, milk production has remained abou the same. Milk production per cow continues to increase. o Aquaculture and other types of animal farming (e.g. emu and ostrich) are increasing in the US. Questions: 1, 2, 3, 6. 7.8. 9 10 11 Possible Essays: 2, 7, 8. 9 No figure 2.2 Learn trends


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