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ANTH 2220 - Crime Scene Investigation

by: Jazmine Beckstrand

ANTH 2220 - Crime Scene Investigation ANTH 2220-01

Marketplace > University of Utah > ANTH 2220-01 > ANTH 2220 Crime Scene Investigation
Jazmine Beckstrand
The U
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the course content for the second week of class. Notes review material covered in both in-class lectures and assigned textbook readings.
Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
Derinna Kopp
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2220-01 at University of Utah taught by Derinna Kopp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

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Date Created: 09/03/16
Week 2: Crime Scene Investigation Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Note: The following covers a presentation by guest speaker, Sandra Grogan, supervisor of the Weber Metro CSI unit. Forensic Science: the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. The Scientific Method  Observation --> Question --> Hypothesis --> Prediction/Theory --> Test  Test either supports or does not support hypothesis. If it does not, develop a new hypothesis and retest. Locard's Principle - when two or more items come in contact with an object or other person, a cross-transfer, or exchange of info, will occur.  For a crime scene investigator, this transfer becomes evidence. Search  Purpose: obtain evidence  Any method of a search can be used, depending on the size. Location, and complexity of the search.  Systematic and thorough, (i.e. grid method, quadrant or zone search, strip or line search, spiral search method) Evidence: any and all objects that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or its perpetrator.  Can be literally anything Note: though every crime scene is different and techniques or application may vary, the process is the same. Note: scene safety is the responsibility falls on the first responder, protection of evidence.  Prevents officers, and others, from aimlessly wondering, and trampling evidence; they are responsible for their own movements.  Protective measures are decided on a case-by-case. Sketch  Creates a mental picture of the scene for those not present; depicts the overall layout of the scene  Make a simple line drawing of the crime scene on whatever paper you have  Include a compass somewhere; include locations of evidence  Measurements can be placed on the sketch, i.e. how far away is the gun from the body Note: ensure to document through photographs; shows the relationship of the scene to its surroundings; capture far, medium, and close.  Far - long range photo consist of your overall photo shots of your scene to your overall outside; also displays time of day; take from all angles or directions. Medium - any range of photos that show more detail than long range; the key  of this range is to tie evidence together and show the relationships.  Close - show the specific details of the evidence in the scene as well as the size of the objects; ideally with and without scale/ruler. Fingerprint Analysis  Two underlying premises of fingerprint identification are uniqueness and persistence (permanence)  No two people have the exactly the same prints, with identical twins with identical DNA, have different prints  A person's fingerprints remain essentially unchanged throughout their lifetime  Three levels of detail  1st level = pattern type (arch, loop, whorl, etc.)  2nd level = minutia or ridge characteristics (ridge endings, bifurcations, etc.)  3rd level = ridge characteristics (pore shapes, ridge flow) Blood Spatter Pattern Analysis  Wipe  Swipe  Cast off  Arterial spurting  High velocity  Angle of impact of blood drops Alternative Light Source (ALS, aka. blue light)  Used to located: fingerprints after processing, hairs and fibers, bruising, bodily fluids (semen, saliva, urine)  Does not get used for locating blood unless we need to change the background; must be used with a filter Clandestine Lab: covert or secret operation with a combination of apparatus and chemical used to make controlled substances.  Meth lab  Marijuana Grows Death Investigations  State of Utah  Medical examiner  Cause  Injury or disease that begins the train of events that ultimately leads to death, mechanism, and manner of death  Mechanism  The biochemical or physiologic abnormally resulting in death  Arrhythmias of the heart, shock, or bleeding  Gunshot wound to the head (cause is the gunshot wound, mechanism is specific injuries to brain)  Manner of death  Homicide, suicide, accident, natural, undetermined  Rigor Mortis  Muscles become increasingly stiff up to 24-36 hours, then the muscles begin to loosen; time of death  Lividity (liver mortis)  Discoloration of the body after death as blood settles; purple is normal  Decomposition  Skin turns green in the abdomen; body begins to swell due to bacterial gas formation; generally within 24-36 hours


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