ANTH 2220 - Crime Scene Investigation
ANTH 2220 - Crime Scene Investigation ANTH 2220-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 2220-01 at University of Utah taught by Derinna Kopp in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Week 2: Crime Scene Investigation Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Note: The following covers a presentation by guest speaker, Sandra Grogan, supervisor of the Weber Metro CSI unit. Forensic Science: the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. The Scientific Method Observation --> Question --> Hypothesis --> Prediction/Theory --> Test Test either supports or does not support hypothesis. If it does not, develop a new hypothesis and retest. Locard's Principle - when two or more items come in contact with an object or other person, a cross-transfer, or exchange of info, will occur. For a crime scene investigator, this transfer becomes evidence. Search Purpose: obtain evidence Any method of a search can be used, depending on the size. Location, and complexity of the search. Systematic and thorough, (i.e. grid method, quadrant or zone search, strip or line search, spiral search method) Evidence: any and all objects that can establish that a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victim or its perpetrator. Can be literally anything Note: though every crime scene is different and techniques or application may vary, the process is the same. Note: scene safety is the responsibility falls on the first responder, protection of evidence. Prevents officers, and others, from aimlessly wondering, and trampling evidence; they are responsible for their own movements. Protective measures are decided on a case-by-case. Sketch Creates a mental picture of the scene for those not present; depicts the overall layout of the scene Make a simple line drawing of the crime scene on whatever paper you have Include a compass somewhere; include locations of evidence Measurements can be placed on the sketch, i.e. how far away is the gun from the body Note: ensure to document through photographs; shows the relationship of the scene to its surroundings; capture far, medium, and close. Far - long range photo consist of your overall photo shots of your scene to your overall outside; also displays time of day; take from all angles or directions. Medium - any range of photos that show more detail than long range; the key of this range is to tie evidence together and show the relationships. Close - show the specific details of the evidence in the scene as well as the size of the objects; ideally with and without scale/ruler. Fingerprint Analysis Two underlying premises of fingerprint identification are uniqueness and persistence (permanence) No two people have the exactly the same prints, with identical twins with identical DNA, have different prints A person's fingerprints remain essentially unchanged throughout their lifetime Three levels of detail 1st level = pattern type (arch, loop, whorl, etc.) 2nd level = minutia or ridge characteristics (ridge endings, bifurcations, etc.) 3rd level = ridge characteristics (pore shapes, ridge flow) Blood Spatter Pattern Analysis Wipe Swipe Cast off Arterial spurting High velocity Angle of impact of blood drops Alternative Light Source (ALS, aka. blue light) Used to located: fingerprints after processing, hairs and fibers, bruising, bodily fluids (semen, saliva, urine) Does not get used for locating blood unless we need to change the background; must be used with a filter Clandestine Lab: covert or secret operation with a combination of apparatus and chemical used to make controlled substances. Meth lab Marijuana Grows Death Investigations State of Utah Medical examiner Cause Injury or disease that begins the train of events that ultimately leads to death, mechanism, and manner of death Mechanism The biochemical or physiologic abnormally resulting in death Arrhythmias of the heart, shock, or bleeding Gunshot wound to the head (cause is the gunshot wound, mechanism is specific injuries to brain) Manner of death Homicide, suicide, accident, natural, undetermined Rigor Mortis Muscles become increasingly stiff up to 24-36 hours, then the muscles begin to loosen; time of death Lividity (liver mortis) Discoloration of the body after death as blood settles; purple is normal Decomposition Skin turns green in the abdomen; body begins to swell due to bacterial gas formation; generally within 24-36 hours
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