Psych 3313 Class Notes Week 2
Psych 3313 Class Notes Week 2 PSYCH 3313
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Kaiser on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3313 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Supe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Psych 3313 Class Notes Class on 8/31 Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System Skull / vertebrae Meninges Cerebrospinal Fluid Blood Supply Blood-Brain Barrier The Meninges A group of three layers of tissue o The Dura Mater - the outermost layer, fairly thick looks like a wet whitish leather o The Arachnoid Mater - filled with cerebrospinal fluid, the middle layer o Pia Mater - innermost layer, super thin Important from a protective and immune role These incase the brain, so there is no friction between the brain and skull. Also gives us some cushion from minor head injuries Infection of the Meninges - Meningitis Fungal, viral, or bacterial - bacterial is the worst one to get Symptoms are often confused with symptoms of other things o Fever, headache, neck pain / stiffness, photophobia. A lot of these are similar to migraine symptoms Procedures involving the Meninges Epidural and spinal tap Epidural - used to numb the lower half of the body, anesthetic used to reduce the feeling of pain Spinal Tap - a diagnostic procedure, they pierce the Dura and pull out some cerebrospinal fluid Cerebral Ventricles We have 4 in our brain. Not necessarily a true structure - think of them as hollow voids of space Filled with cerebrospinal fluid Two diseases associated with enlarged ventricles - schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Enlarged ventricles are more like a side effect of these diseases than a cause What is cerebrospinal fluid? Choroid Plexus is what makes CSF Through the ventricles and meninges 100-150 mL in our body at any given time We are constantly making new CSF and renew it multiple times a day (3X) o Where does it go if we replenish it 3 times a day? Similar to plasma and blood but no protein in it It has a lot of protection purpose Provides cushion Provide nutrition to the CNS and excretion by pulling things out of the CNS when they are no longer needed Goes through the ventricles, spinal canal, and arachnoid mater It empties into the blood stream and is pretty much undetected from there Most of the time that works correctly There is a condition called Hydrocephalus (used to be called water on the brain) - blockage of CSF flow, enlarged ventricles and head, treated with shunting procedure Most likely to result from a block in the aqueductus cerebri There can be surgical procedures to help this condition The brain has a generous supply of blood Can shut everything down in order to get the blood it needs If it does not get the blood it needs to faint :( It uses about 16% of total blood supply The circle of Willis Kind of like a cardiovascular round about in the brain The Blood-Brain Barrier It is very important to try and keep things out o Protects brain from foreign substances o Protects brain from hormones and neurotransmitters in rest of body o Maintains constant environment for brain Also a real challenge for us - in terms of medications getting to the brain that we need What does it look like? Blood vessel Endothelial cells surrounded by glial cells What is allowed in? Water Some gases Lipid soluble molecules o Coffee, nicotine, sedatives, etc.. Glucose Amino acids Not allowed? Large molecule Toxic things Certain drugs (good and bad) Opening and Weakening the BBB Ways to potentially do this o High blood pressure o Microwaves, ultrasonic waves, radiation o Infection o Injury; stroke, inflammation, pressure The Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System Somatic and Autonomic Peripheral Nerves Afferent - sensory, go toward CNS from receptors o Sometimes myelinated Efferent - motor, go out from CNS to the body o Always myelinated, fast right away Cranial Nerves 12 pairs Exit and enter directly from brain Sensory motor or both Olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear/auditory, glossopharyngeal , vagus, spinal accessory, hypoglossal We only need to know the highlighted ones Put them into chunks Olfactory, Optic, auditory vestibular ( all purely sensory) Oculomotor, trochlear, abducens (control movement of eye muscles but in different axis) Trigeminal, facial, vagus (does both sensory and movement) Relatively common cranial nerve conditions Bell's Palsy - temporary paralysis of one side of face, inflammation / infection of facial nerve. Sometimes happens after sinus infections, pregnancy Cold Sores - HSV1, viral infection of facial nerve, in times of stress or weakened immune symptons ACHOO Syndrome - Sun sneezing, overstimulation of Trigeminal Nerve, light is too bright and you sneeze and close your eyes Spinal Nerves 21 left/right pairs Afferent or efferent Functional and anatomical differences Mixed nerve that splits: Dorsal - sensory afferents Ventral - motor effects Peripheral Nervous System Somatic- Somatosensory and skeletal motor Autonomic - Glands and organs Sympathetic / parasympathetic Enteric - Digestive system Autonomic NS Involuntary things o Heartbeat, blood pressure, respiration, perspiration, digestion Can be influenced by emotion Sympathetic NS Fight/flight/freeze Releases adrenaline and norepinephrine o This raises heart rate and blood pressure o Also raises blood flow to skeletal muscles o Inhibits digestive functions Comes from thoracic and lumbar Parasympathetic Opposite of sympathetic A lot more calm, conserves and maintains energy Release of acetylcholine o Brings down heart rate and blood pressure Stimulates digestion Comes from cranial and sacral Class on 9/2 Central Nervous System Contains the brain and spinal cord Afferent (sensory) info - dorsal root processes this Efferent (motor) info - ventral root processes this Spinal Cord Ascending and descending pathways Anatomy Extends from our medulla to the first lumbar vertibra 31 peripheral Spinal nerves Cross-sections of the spinal cord White matter (nerve fibers), gray matter (cell bodies) o Dorsal horn of gray matter, sensory o Ventral horn, voluntary movements or spinal reflexes In the neck there is not much of a ventral horn Further down the cord swells and gets a little larger, more dorsal and ventral horn, provides movement to the arms Just by looking at the spinal cord you can get an idea of what part of the body gets info from there Spinal Reflexes Patellar Reflex o When a doctor hits a little hammer on our knee and we kick our leg out. It is an involuntary movement we cannot stop the kick because it is processed by the spinal cord Withdrawal Reflex o When someone touches a hot or pointy object and pull their hand back o This reaction is mediated entirely by the spinal cord, before we even experience pain in our brain Damage to the spinal cord Loss of sensation Loss of voluntary movement in parts of body at or below damaged area Loss of voluntary control of control of bladder and bowel Some reflexes maintained o Quadriplegic - loss of sensation and movement in all four limbs (from thoracic area) o Paraplegic - loss of sensation and function is legs (from lumbar, sacral, or coccygeal area) General Brain Organization Hind brain, midbrain, forebrain Know the distinctions from the brain chart Hind Brain Includes the Pons, medulla, cerebellum, reticular formation These are some of the first structures to develop in the womb The Medulla Aka myelencephalon Major relay between the brain and spinal cord VERY IMPORTANT TO KEEP US ALIVE - breathing, heart rate, blood pressure Contains reticular formation If damaged it is BAD Pons Above the medulla Means "bridge" Aka metencephalon Connects cerebral cortex to cerebellum Involved in sleep, arousal (general awakeness), audition, balance, motion sickness (small list of things it does) Contains a lot of neurotransmitter nuclei o Serotonin - raphe nucleus o Norepinephrine - locus coeruleus o Vestibular nucleus - balance o Cochlear nucleus - hearing stuff Reticular Formation Aka reticular activating system Spans several areas and structures Projects to pretty much the entire brain Netlike mixture of neurons and nerve fibers throughout medulla and pons Important for stimulating the rest of the forebrain Associated with consciousness, arousal (general sense), attention, movement, pain Cerebellum Means "tiny brain" Control speed, intensity, direction of complex voluntary movements Motor coordination, balance, speech Involved in some cognitive functions Particularly sensitive to alcohol Size increases with the speed and dexterity of a species Area in which we see differences in individuals with autism spectrum disease Cerebellum is small but has more neurons than the rest of the brain Midbrain structures Mesencephalon Tectum - dorsal half Tegmentum - ventral half Includes periaqueductal gray Natural pain management, you feel euphoric after exercise Red nucleus Motor output pathway Substantia Nigra Motor output pathway Parkinson's disease Superior and inferior colliculi Visual gaze and localization of auditory stimuli respectively Forebrain Diencephalon Telencephalon Thalamus Receives sensory information and regulatory info o Except smell "gateway to the cortex" or "sensory switchboard" o Projects info where it needs to go, kind of like a BIG POSTOFFICE Participates in state of consciousness, learning & memory o Regulates brain rhythms in sleep and attention Hypothalamus Regulatory center: works like a thermostat - is responsible for maintaining a constant internal state (homeostasis) o Regulates eating, drinking, sex, biorhythms in circadian rhythms, temperature control Controls pituitary gland (hormones) Collection of specialized nuclei - place where different nuclei can be initiated to help regulate what we need Directs autonomic nervous system Basal Ganglia Group of structures in the forebrain that help control and filter movement Role in implicit procedural memories Parts: caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, nucleus accumbens (people have taken interest in this area) Disorders associated with this structure Parkinson's disease - movement control, not getting the dopamine they need to function correctly, unwanted extra movement is passing through this filter(basal ganglia). Or movement is not going through this filter Huntington's disease - movement control, unwanted movement in this one again Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD - cognitive control Obsessive Compulsive disorder OCD - cognitive control o All of these have a problem in the filter (basal ganglia) Limbic System Structures and Functions Collection of forebrain structures that play roles in emotional behavior and learning Amygdala The star of fear in our world Plays a key role in threat detection, fear, excitement, and arousal Can be very useful but can be harmful if overactive - like anxiety making us feel like we are going to be eaten when we are in no harmful situation
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