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NTR 213 Notes for Weeks 1-2

by: bjwall

NTR 213 Notes for Weeks 1-2 NTR 213

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These notes cover Chapter 1 from Visualizing Nutrtion for NTR 213. They cover all the important details and things that will show up on exam 1! If you have any questions, feel free to contact me...
Introduction to Nutrition
Dr. Seth Armah
Class Notes
nutrition, Carbohydrates, Proteins, digestion, phytochemical, Dietary Supplements, fortification, calorie, Macronutrients, micronutrients, zoochemicals, food, sugars, starch, Vitamins, minerals, amino acids, Lipids




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by bjwall on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 213 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Dr. Seth Armah in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.

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Date Created: 09/03/16
Chapter 1 – Nutrition: Everyday Choices 1.1 Food Choices and Nutrient Intake  Nutrients – a substance in food that provides energy and structure to the body and regulates body processes o To stay healthy, humans need more than 40 essential nutrients.  Essential Nutrient – a nutrient that must be consumed in the diet  because it cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient  quantities to maintain body functions  Calorie – a unit of measure used to express the amount of energy  provided by food  Nutrients from Foods, Fortified Foods, and Supplements Any food you eat adds some nutrients to your diet, but to make diet healthy,  important to choose nutrient­dense foods.   Nutrient Density – measure of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content o Contain more nutrients per calorie than do foods with lower  nutrient density  o Less processed foods provide more nutrients per calorie  In addition to nutrients that occur naturally in foods, we obtain nutrients from  fortified foods.  Fortification – the addition of nutrients to foods o Begun to help eliminate nutrient deficiencies in population,  government mandating that certain nutrients be added to certain  foods.   Milk added VD, grain added VB & irons  Dietary Supplements – product sold to supplement the diet; may include  nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids), enzymes, herbs,  or other subtances  Food Provides More Than Nutrients Food contains substances not essential to life but can be beneficial to health  Phytochemical – substance found in plant foods that is not an essential  nutrient but may have health­promoting properties  o Zoochemicals are health promoting property substances found in  animal foods   Functional Foods – food that has health­promoting properties beyond  basic nutritional functions o Examples: broccoli, fish o Modified foods, such as water with added vitamins, called designer foods.  o Nutraceutical refers to any food or supplement that delivers a  health benefit What Determines Food Choices?  Put in front of us  What we have learned to eat  What is socially acceptable in our cultural heritage or religion  What we think is healthy   What our personal convictions demand (vegetarian, environmental  consciousness)   Individual preferences for taste, smell, appearance, texture affect which  foods we actually consume  Food provides sensory pleasure and helps meet our social and  emotional needs in addition to physiological requirements.  1.2 Nutrients and Their Functions  6 CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS o Carbohydrates  o Lipids o Proteins o Water o Vitamins o Minerals  Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water – macronutrients because they  are needed in large amounts  Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients because they are needed in  small amounts  o Together they provide us with energy, contribute to structure of  our bodies, and regulate biological processes that go on inside us  o All nutrients together are needed to provide growth, maintain and  repair body, and support reproduction The 6 Classes of Nutrients   Organic Compounds – a substance that contains C bonded to H o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins  o Provides energy for the body   Carbohydrates – class of nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and  fibers. Chemically, they all contain C, along with H and O, in the same  proportions as in water o Fiber – type of carbohydrate that cannot be broken down by  human digestive enzymes   Lipids – class of nutrients, commonly called fats, that include saturated  and unsaturated fats and cholesterol; most do not dissolve in water o Cholesterol – type of lipid that is found in the diet and in the body.  High blood levels increase the risk of heart disease  o Saturated Fat – lipid that is most abundant in solid animal fats  and is associated with an increased risk of heart disease  o Unsaturated Fat – lipid that is most abundant in plant oils and is  associated with a reduced risk of heart disease   Protein – class of nutrients that includes molecules made up of one or  more intertwining chains of amino acids  o Made up of amino acids linked together to form different proteins   Water is only a single substance, unlike all other nutrients.  o 60% of adult’s body weight  o Acts as lubricant, transport fluid, regulator of body temperature   Vitamins – organic molecules that are needed in small amounts to  maintain health o 13 vitamins  Functions: regulating energy metabolism, maintaining  vision, protecting cell membranes, helping blood to clot  Minerals are elements needed in small amounts. o Iron – transport of O in blood o Ca – keeping bones strong  o Some are natural sources: Oranges, milk, carrots What Nutrients Do  Energy­Yielding Nutrients – carbohydrates, lipids, proteins  o Provide energy that can be measured in calories   Kilocalories – see on food labels, units of 1000 calories  When spelled Calorie = kilocalorie \  CHO provides 4 C/g – most immediate source of  energy for the body   Lipids are major form of stored energy in the body o Fat = 9 C/g  Protein = 4 C/g  Alcohol = 7 C/g o Water, vitamins, and minerals do not provide energy   All except vitamins are involved in forming and maintaining the body’s  structure o Fats – body shape o Proteins – ligaments and tendons  o Minerals – harden bone o Protein & water – structure of muscles o Protein & CHO – form cartilage that cushions joints  o Lipids, proteins, water – cells   Lipids & proteins – membrane  Water – fill cell o Proteins, vitamins, minerals regulatory nutrients that help control  how quickly chemical reactions take place  o Lipids and proteins needed to make regulatory molecules called  hormones that stimulate or inhibit body processes.  1.3 Nutrition in Health and Disease  Malnutrition – condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake  either above or below that which is optimal  Undernutrition and Overnutrition  Undernutrition occurs when intake doesn’t meet the body needs  o Dehydration – immediate o Scurvy – months o Osteoporosis – bones weak, after years   Overnutrition – excess intake of nutrients or calories  o Iron – liver failure; VB – nerve damage  o High in sodium – high BP o Saturated fat – heart disease  o 26% of deaths  o 68% obese o 55% of deaths related to nutrition  Diet­Gene Interactions  Genes – units of a larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for  inherited traits  o Determines the impact of certain nutrient will have for you  Nutritional Genomics – study of how our genes affect the impact of  nutrients or other food components on health (nutrigenetics) and how  nutrients affect the activity of our genes (nutrigenomics)  o Explores interaction b/n human genes and nutrition and health   Personalized nutrition – prescribe diet based on genes an  individual has inherited in order to prevent, moderate, or  cure chronic disease  1.4 Choosing a Healthy Diet   Healthy diet provides the right number of calories to keep your weight in  the desirable range  o Rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables; high in fiber; moderate fat,  sugar, sodium; low in unhealthy fats o Healthy diet based on variety, balance, and moderation  Balance Your Choices  Balance calories in with calories out Practice Moderation  Moderation means not overdoing it – not having too much fat, too many  calories, too much sugar, too much salt, or too much alcohol.   68% of adult Americans are overweight or obsese  o Main culprit – size of food portion  o VC & VA – salad, potatoes, broccoli  1.5 Evaluating Nutrition Information The Science Behind Nutrition  The systematic, unbiased approach that allows any science to acquire  new knowledge and correct and update previous knowledge is the  scientific method. Process used to ask and answer scientific questions  through observation & experimentation.  o Hypothesis – proposed explanation for an observation or a  scientific problem that can be tested through experimentation o Theory – a formal explanation of an observed phenomenon made  after a hypothesis has been tested and supported through  extensive experimentation  Scientific method involves making observations of natural events,  formulating hypotheses to explain these events, designing and  performing experiments to test these hypotheses, and developing theories that explain he observed phenomenon based on the results of many  studies.   In nutrition, it’s used to develop nutrient recommendations,  understand functions of nutrients, and learn about the role of  nutrition in promoting health and preventing disease.   Steps: o Observation o Hypothesis o Experiment o Theory  How Scientists Study Nutrition  Epidemiological Studies – populations around world explore impact of  nutrition on health, identifies patterns   Clinical trials – observations and hypotheses from epidemiology can be  tested using clinical trials, explore health effects of altering people’s diets  Animal Studies – guinea pigs good for studying heart disease  Biochemistry and molecular biology – laboratory based techniques  used to study nutrient functions  Epidemiology – branch of science that studies health and disease trends  and patterns in populations   Control Group – group of participants used as a basis for comparison.  Similar to participants in the experimental group but do not receive the  treatment being tested o Standard of comparison for the fact or variable o Control subjects consume placebo – fake product that is indentical in appearance to the dietary supplement   Experimental Group – group of participants who undergo treatment  being tested   Peer­review process used in determining whether experimental results  should be published in scientific journals    Evidence­based practice – recommendations and policies regarding  nutrition and health care are made by compiling the evidence from the  wealth of well­controlled, peer­reviewed studies that are available  Judging for Yourself  Too good to be true, info from unreliable source, info intended to sell a  product, info that is new or untested o Does it make sense? o What’s the source? o Is it selling something? o Has it stood the test of time?


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