Social Psychology Chapter 3 Cont'd
Social Psychology Chapter 3 Cont'd Psy 321
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
PSY 321: Social Psychology Chapter 3: Social Cognition I. What do schemas do? a. Assists our understanding b. Guide our attention c. Aids our memory i. Schemas help fill in the blanks so that aids our memory ii. We remember things that are both schema consistent and schema inconsistent iii. Things we don’t remember are schema neutral d. Affects our behavior i. Shooting? 1. Real life the Amadou Diallo shooting a. Diallo was shot in 1999 after being mistaken for a serial rapist and approached by off duty police officers b. He pulled out his wallet which was mistaken for a gun and cops opened fire c. Four cops fired 41 shots and hit Diallo 19 times d. On March 25 the officers were indicted but later were acquitted 2. Researchers wondered how a wallet could be mistaken as a gun a. Did schemas interfere? b. Correll, Park, Judd, and Wittenbrink (2002) i. Nonblack participants were asked to play a video game 1. They saw black and white characters a. Some characters had guns while others held innocent objects such as a cellphone 2. They were told to shoot if a character had a gun and to not shoot if the character was holding an innocent object 3. Dependent variable: The number of errors (wrong choice) that the participants make a. People made the equal number of mistakes when looking at a white person b. People made way more mistakes when looking at a black person i. They used schemas to fill in the blanks and would shoot unarmed black characters ii. Selffulfilling prophecy 1. When you believe something and it actually happens a. Ex: If you think a class will be bad then it will be bad and you will be more likely to remember the bad things about it II. Which schemas do we use? a. We use schemas that are accessible i. What makes a schema accessible? 1. Chronic accessibility a. These are schemas you use all the time 2. Temporary accessibility/ priming a. These schemas are made accessible to us in that moment III. The good and bad of schemas a. The good i. Schemas make us efficient 1. Schemas allow us to make quick judgment/ assumptions ii. Schemas make us accurate? 1. They kind of have to be, a little bit a. The Google Autocomplete Project (DiResta 2012) i. Using Google autocomplete… “Why is State X so…?” ii. States that autocompleted with unhealthy/fat tend to have high obesity rates iii. States that autocompleted with expensive tend to have a higher standard of living b. The bad i. Schemas can lead to bad behavior 1. Schemas make us make judgments that aren’t true ii. Schemas make us inaccurate? 1. Schemas are inaccurate when it comes to individuals and specifics iii. We overuse our schemas iv. So, do we just get rid of bad schemas? 1. Not always, perseverance effect a. It is the tendency for beliefs/ schemas to remain unchanged even in the face of contradictory evidence b. We make exceptions for some situations/ people IV. Other automatic thinking a. Heuristics i. Definition: A mental shortcut ii. Heuristics allow us to make quick judgments iii. Types 1. Representative heuristic a. This is our quick judgment we make when we classify something based on typicality 2. Availability heuristic a. We base judgments on how available information is i. We base it on the ease of which you can access that information 1. Schwarz et al. (1991) a. Participants were asked to think of either 6 or 12 times they were either assertive or unassertive b. They were then asked to rate how assertive they were c. Dependent variable: Selfrated assertiveness i. People who had to think of 6 times rated themselves as assertive while those who had to think of 12 times rated themselves unassertive b. Order effects i. Definition: The order in which information is presented to you affects your thinking c. Framing effects i. Definition: The way information is framed affects our interpretation of that information 1. Consider the following: a. Statement A: 60% of people will live if we distribute a new drug b. Statement B: 40% of people will die if we do not distribute a new drug c. Both are basically the same thing d. Central organizing traits i. Some words are so powerful they color the other words around it 1. Asch 1946, Kelly 1950: A professor is described in a positive/ negative way by just one word (warm/ cold)
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