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Foundations of Biology (IU, BIO111)

by: Athena Nagel

Foundations of Biology (IU, BIO111) BIOL-L111

Marketplace > Indiana University > Biology > BIOL-L111 > Foundations of Biology IU BIO111
Athena Nagel
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The first week of lecture covered basic evolutionary terms and touched on the process of Meiosis.
foundations of biology: diversity, evolution, and ecology
Spencer Hall
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Athena Nagel on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-L111 at Indiana University taught by Spencer Hall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see foundations of biology: diversity, evolution, and ecology in Biology at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Athena Nagel Foundations of Biology (Week 1)  Terms: What does it mean to be alive?   Cells: Membrane­bound units that make up all organisms. The membrane allows for the  passage of materials between exterior and interior spaces.  Replication: All organisms want to replicate/reproduce.   Evolution: Organisms go through evolution to change and better adapt to their  surroundings.   Information: Organisms have genes. They respond to the outside environment and  adjust to maintain internal conditions.  Terms:   Energy: All organisms require forms of energy to stay alive.   Theory: An explaination for a very general class of phenomena that a large amount of  evidence supports.   Hypothesis: Testing a single factor on a particular phenomenon.   Pasteur’s experiment: Straight neck flask grew bacterial cells while swan neck flask  didn’t.  o Cell from cell hypothesis. (True) o Cell from spontaneous generations. (Proven wrong)  Evolution:   Species are related by a common ancestor.   Characteristics can change with each generation.   Modification: The characteristics of species can be modified from generation to  generation. (Darwin)   Natural selection: Occurs when individuals in a population vary in characteristics that  are heritable, cells are the fundamental structure unit, and species are related by common  ancestry but changed due to natural selection.  1. Individuals within a population vary in characteristics that are heritable.  2. In a particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help individuals  survive better or reproduce more than do other versions.   Fitness: An individual’s ability to produce viable offspring.   Adaptation: A trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment. Giraffe example:  o Hypothesis: Giraffes have long necks to reach food high up in trees that is  unavailable for other mammals. (resource competitions)    o Alternative hypothesis: Long necks allow giraffe heads to be used as weapons.  (Fights to “win over” the female giraffe to reproduce with).  Second hypothesis has been supported by evidence.  Meiosis: Terms Gamete: reproductive cells such as sperm and eggs. Meisosis: nuclear division that leads to a haling of chromosome number and ultimately to the  production of sperm and egg. Gene: a segment of DNA, found at a specific place on a chromosome, that influences a  hereditary trait.  Allele: one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the  same place on a chromosome. Homologous chromosome: chromosomes that are the same shape and size.  Ploidy: the number of chromosome sets  Diploid: having two of each type of chromosome Haploid: having one of each type of chromosome Sister chromatids: the two identical chromatid copies in a replicated chromosome  Non­sister chromatid: the chromatids of two homologous chromosomes Bivalent: homologous replicated chromosomes that are joined together during prophase I and  metaphase I of meiosis Synapsis: a tight side­by­side pairing of homologous chromosomes along their corresponding  regions.  Chiasmata: X­shaped structures that join together homologs  Crossing over: when non­sister chromatids meet to form a chiasma where they exchange parts  of chromosomes between paternal and maternal homologs.  Recombination:  the process of forming new allelic combination in offspring by exchanges  between genetic materials (as exchange of DNA sequences between DNA molecules) Outcrossing  the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line Question: ­­What are the fundamental differences between mitosis and meiosis? Meiosis has two rounds of genetic separation and cellular division while mitosis only has one of  each. In meiosis homologous chromosomes separate leading to daughter cells that are not  genetically identical due to crossing over. In mitosis the daughter cells are identical to the parent  as well a to each other. What is independent assortment? The Principle of Independent Assortment describes how different genes independently separate  from one another when reproductive cells develop. 


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