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Intro to Geology, Week 1 Notes

by: Kayla Mathias

Intro to Geology, Week 1 Notes GEL020

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Geology > GEL020 > Intro to Geology Week 1 Notes
Kayla Mathias
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.5
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About this Document

These notes cover the lectures from the first week of class, including the difference between physical and historical geology, the Earth's cycles, and the origins of the Earth.
Introduction to Geology
Dr. Tindall
Class Notes
Geology, EARTH, igneous rocks




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEL020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Tindall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Intro to Geology 020—Week 1 Notes 29/8 Types of Geology: 1. Physical Geology—Study of Earth’s materials and processes 2. Historical Geology—Study of Earth’s history based on preserved physical evidenceThe Earth is 4 ½ billion years old, according to scientific evidence Geologists figure out how to: 1. Study Earth’s history by looking at modern processes and using that data to understand ancient processes. Ex: Glaciers cause till by smooshing rock fragments into one large rock. Ancient glacial till eventually turns into solid rock called tillite Uniformitarianism (important term): The present is the key to the past. The processes we observe today are the same processes we assume have happened in the past. Physical Geology: Materials and Processes Things geologists do other than dig up rocks: 1. Discover what materials are best for which purposes such as rare Earth elements that are used to make smart phones 2. Knowing where to mine to find specific materials 30/8 Geologists Study: 1. Natural hazardous occurrences 2. Energy and Environment 3. The interactions of the cycles of the Earth system: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere A. Hydrologic (water) Cycle: Condensationprecipitationrunofinfiltration B. Rock Cycle: MagmaIgneous rocksedimentary rockmetamorphic rock C. Plate Tectonic Cycle: Plates move apart, making room for volcanoes, which eventually form new plates D. Biosphere and hydrosphere interact with the rock cycle in that dead things eventually end up as sediment E. Greenhouse gases are also an important part of the cycles The Earth: Origin (according to most scientists) -The “Big Bang” happened approximately 13 billion years ago -Solar systems (including ours) were formed with a supernova (giant star) exploded, forming a solar nebula, which eventually formed a new solar system -Planetary Accretion: Space debris gets stuck together and forms a planet -Planetary Diferentiation: The melty Earth separates into layers according to density -The melting is caused by radioactive elements that were made by the supernova as well as accretion causing heat -The Earth is approximately 4.5-4.6 billion years old. This number was decided on by dating meteorites and igneous rocks. Moon rocks also date about the same age


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