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Experimental Psychology Notes Week 2

by: Elizabeth Schnarr

Experimental Psychology Notes Week 2 PSYC 266 - 04

Marketplace > Truman State University > Psychology > PSYC 266 - 04 > Experimental Psychology Notes Week 2
Elizabeth Schnarr
Truman State

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About this Document

These notes cover topics for the three main lectures this week in class. The lectures covered are experimental vs. nonexperimental research, surveys, interviews, sampling, variables, and levels of ...
Experimental Psychology
Ashley Ramsey
Class Notes
experiment, experimental, Experience Psychology, psych, Psychology, research, surveys, Sampling, variables
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 266 - 04 at Truman State University taught by Ashley Ramsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychology at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Week 2: 8/29­9/4  Experimental Psychology  Experimental​  ​s. Non­Experimental Research      External Validity  ● The degree to which research findings can be generalized to other settings and  individuals   ● Non­experimental studies have higher external validity    Case Studies  ● Descriptive study of a subject’s experiences, behaviors, and records  ● Pros: source of hypotheses and theories, source of therapy techniques, and  allows study of rare phenomena  ● Cons: limits representativeness of sample, completeness of data, and reliance on  retrospective data    Retrospective Data  ● Recollections of past events that are collected in the present  ● Ex: childhood memories    Deviant case analysis­ researchers examine differences between deviant and normal  individuals to identify etiological factors    Etiological factor­ ​the study of causation or origination    Reactivity­ subjects alter behavior after knowing that they are being observed    Field Studies  ● Conducted in real­life settings  ● The experimenter does not manipulate antecedent conditions  ● Experimenters use naturalistic observation to observe their study  ● Has high levels of external validity    Participant­Observer Study  ● Experimenter does not manipulate anything  ● Observer pretends to be a group member in the study  ● From this type of study, problems can arise due to deception  Week 2: 8/29­9/4    Field Experiment  Field Study  experimental  non­experimental      Archival Study  ● Descriptive method of study where researchers re­examine data that has already  been collected for other purposes  ● Ex: graduating senior questionnaire or transcripts      Qualitative research consists of words (is more useful for contextual phenomena)    Quantitative research consists of numbers                                                Week 2: 8/29­9/4  Experimental Psychology  Surveys, Interviews, and Sampling      Survey Research  ● Obtains data about opinions, attitudes, preferences, and behaviors using  questionnaires or interviews   ● Allows researchers to study private experiences    Advantages to Surveys  ● Efficiently collect large amounts of data  ● Anonymous surveys can increase accuracy  ● Allow us to complement laboratory and field experiments     Limitations  ● Bias  ● Dishonesty  ● Doesn’t test hypotheses (we can’t manipulate independent variable or control  extraneous variables)    Constructing surveys  1.  Identify specific research objectives  2. Decide on degree of imposition of units (how many answers, open­ended or  closed questions, etc.)  3. Decide how you will analyze the survey data    Question Types  ● Closed questions (structured)­ can be answered using a limited number of  alternatives  ● Open­ended questions­ not structed, and low imposition of units  ● Number or percent of responses can be reported for closed questions   ● Content analysis (used to analyze open­ended questions)­where responses are  assigned to categories using objective rules    Constructing Questions and Surveys  1. Keep it simple  2. Avoid double­barreled questions  Week 2: 8/29­9/4  3. Use exhaustive response choices (cover all possible answers)     ● Engage subjects from the start  ● First questions should be...  ­relevant to central topic  ­easy to answer  ­interesting  ­answerable by most  ­closed format  ● Use commonly used response options  ● Avoid value­laden questions that could be embarrassing    Response  ● Response Styles­ tendencies to respond to questions without regard to their  actual wording  ● Social Desirability­ representing ourselves in a socially appropriate fashion when  responding to a questions’ ​latent content (underlying meaning)    Context Effects  ● Changes in question interpretation due to their position within a survey  ● Buffer items (unrelated questions)    Manifest  ● Plain meaning of the words printed on the page    Structured vs. Unstructured Interviews  ● Structured interviews­ questions are asked same way each time (more usable,  quantifiable data)  ● Unstructured interviews­ explore topics as they arise (data may not be usable for  content analysis)    Sample and Population  ● Population­ all people, animals, or objects that share at least one characteristic  ● Sample­ subset of the population of interest          Week 2: 8/29­9/4  Experimental Psychology  Variables and Levels of Measurement      Variables  ● In psych, one would be looking at the effect of the experimental change (I.V) on a  behavior or mental process (D.V)  ● Extraneous variable might have an effect on the outcome of the experiment  ● If these E.Vs vary with the I.V and we’re sure they have an effect, then they’re  upgraded to the confounding variables      I.V Levels  ● Experimental group and Control group      Scales of Measurement  ● Nominal scale: assigns items to 2 more distinct categories  Ex: Professors can be categorized as either dull or exciting  ● Ordinal scale: measures the magnitude of the D.V using ranks, but not precise  values    Ex: marathon contestants may finish from first to last place (not equal  intervals of time between the place)  ●  Interval scale: measures magnitude of D.V by using equal intervals between  values with no absolute zero  Ex: degrees celsius or fahrenheit (0 degrees fahrenheit does not mean  there is not heat, and you can get below 0 degrees, so therefore it’s zero is not  absolute)  ● Ratio scale: measures the magnitude of the D.V using equal intervals between  values and has an absolute value  Ex: distance, height, age, etc.    


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