Experimental Psychology Notes Week 2
Experimental Psychology Notes Week 2 PSYC 266 - 04
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 266 - 04 at Truman State University taught by Ashley Ramsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Week 2: 8/299/4 Experimental Psychology Experimental s. NonExperimental Research External Validity ● The degree to which research findings can be generalized to other settings and individuals ● Nonexperimental studies have higher external validity Case Studies ● Descriptive study of a subject’s experiences, behaviors, and records ● Pros: source of hypotheses and theories, source of therapy techniques, and allows study of rare phenomena ● Cons: limits representativeness of sample, completeness of data, and reliance on retrospective data Retrospective Data ● Recollections of past events that are collected in the present ● Ex: childhood memories Deviant case analysis researchers examine differences between deviant and normal individuals to identify etiological factors Etiological factor the study of causation or origination Reactivity subjects alter behavior after knowing that they are being observed Field Studies ● Conducted in reallife settings ● The experimenter does not manipulate antecedent conditions ● Experimenters use naturalistic observation to observe their study ● Has high levels of external validity ParticipantObserver Study ● Experimenter does not manipulate anything ● Observer pretends to be a group member in the study ● From this type of study, problems can arise due to deception Week 2: 8/299/4 Field Experiment Field Study experimental nonexperimental Archival Study ● Descriptive method of study where researchers reexamine data that has already been collected for other purposes ● Ex: graduating senior questionnaire or transcripts Qualitative research consists of words (is more useful for contextual phenomena) Quantitative research consists of numbers Week 2: 8/299/4 Experimental Psychology Surveys, Interviews, and Sampling Survey Research ● Obtains data about opinions, attitudes, preferences, and behaviors using questionnaires or interviews ● Allows researchers to study private experiences Advantages to Surveys ● Efficiently collect large amounts of data ● Anonymous surveys can increase accuracy ● Allow us to complement laboratory and field experiments Limitations ● Bias ● Dishonesty ● Doesn’t test hypotheses (we can’t manipulate independent variable or control extraneous variables) Constructing surveys 1. Identify specific research objectives 2. Decide on degree of imposition of units (how many answers, openended or closed questions, etc.) 3. Decide how you will analyze the survey data Question Types ● Closed questions (structured) can be answered using a limited number of alternatives ● Openended questions not structed, and low imposition of units ● Number or percent of responses can be reported for closed questions ● Content analysis (used to analyze openended questions)where responses are assigned to categories using objective rules Constructing Questions and Surveys 1. Keep it simple 2. Avoid doublebarreled questions Week 2: 8/299/4 3. Use exhaustive response choices (cover all possible answers) ● Engage subjects from the start ● First questions should be... relevant to central topic easy to answer interesting answerable by most closed format ● Use commonly used response options ● Avoid valueladen questions that could be embarrassing Response ● Response Styles tendencies to respond to questions without regard to their actual wording ● Social Desirability representing ourselves in a socially appropriate fashion when responding to a questions’ latent content (underlying meaning) Context Effects ● Changes in question interpretation due to their position within a survey ● Buffer items (unrelated questions) Manifest ● Plain meaning of the words printed on the page Structured vs. Unstructured Interviews ● Structured interviews questions are asked same way each time (more usable, quantifiable data) ● Unstructured interviews explore topics as they arise (data may not be usable for content analysis) Sample and Population ● Population all people, animals, or objects that share at least one characteristic ● Sample subset of the population of interest Week 2: 8/299/4 Experimental Psychology Variables and Levels of Measurement Variables ● In psych, one would be looking at the effect of the experimental change (I.V) on a behavior or mental process (D.V) ● Extraneous variable might have an effect on the outcome of the experiment ● If these E.Vs vary with the I.V and we’re sure they have an effect, then they’re upgraded to the confounding variables I.V Levels ● Experimental group and Control group Scales of Measurement ● Nominal scale: assigns items to 2 more distinct categories Ex: Professors can be categorized as either dull or exciting ● Ordinal scale: measures the magnitude of the D.V using ranks, but not precise values Ex: marathon contestants may finish from first to last place (not equal intervals of time between the place) ● Interval scale: measures magnitude of D.V by using equal intervals between values with no absolute zero Ex: degrees celsius or fahrenheit (0 degrees fahrenheit does not mean there is not heat, and you can get below 0 degrees, so therefore it’s zero is not absolute) ● Ratio scale: measures the magnitude of the D.V using equal intervals between values and has an absolute value Ex: distance, height, age, etc.
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