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Human Biology (BIO 100) Week 1 Class Notes

by: snufkin

Human Biology (BIO 100) Week 1 Class Notes Biol 100

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Biology > Biol 100 > Human Biology BIO 100 Week 1 Class Notes
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About this Document

Week 1 lecture notes from BIO 100 (Human Biology course) going over the characteristics of living things, scientific method, structures of atoms, and radioactive isotopes.
Human Biology
Lynne Dowdy
Class Notes
Biology, HumanBiology, atoms, radioactiveisotopes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by snufkin on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 100 at San Francisco State University taught by Lynne Dowdy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Biology Notes: Week 1    Characteristics of living things:    1) Highly organized layers of structure  ­all living things are made up of atoms  ­CHNO are elements that make up 97% of humans  ­cells are the basic unit of life  ­there are 200 different types of cells in the human body  ­​atom →molecule →cell →tissue →organ →organ system  o ​                 ​→organism        ​2)  Homeostasis (“stay the same”)­ process of maintaining a relatively    s  ​  ​ table internal environment     ­ex. blood sugar, temperature, water levels  ­when the body temperature gets too hot, the body creates  fucky​  sweat which evaporates and cools down the body. The body  fucky​  also redirects blood flow to the surface of the skin, the the  fucky  ​blood brings heat close to the skin to help the sweat evaporate.  ­when the body temperature gets too cold, the body shivers;  fucky​  this is the muscles contracting to generate heat. The body also  fucky​  redirects blood flow to the core to keep the important organs  fucky​  alive. Metabolic processes also slow down to conserve energy.        ​ )  Growth  ­all living things increase in size       ​4)  Metablosim     ­the chemical reactions that control break down of food, growth,  ­­­­­­­­​ ormones, etc.       5)  Responsiveness to stimuli  ­how the organism reacts to different stimulants         6)  Reproduction  ­all living things make copies of themselves (pass down DNA)      ​ 7)  Evolution  ­genetic change in a population over time        Scientific Method:    Observations  → Hypothesis  → Experiment/ Results  → Conclusion  →  Scientific Theory    ­Good studies are blind studies, where the participants don’t know what  group they are in to prevent psychological bias (ex. When testing which  medicine is better, the control group is given a ​placebo  ​ pill­ a medicine that  doesn’t actually do anything)    ­Double blind studies are the best, where the scientists don’t know which  participants are in what group and is kept track by a third party    ­Studies should be done with a large sample size    ­Studies should be repeated to make sure of the results          Atoms        ­Protons and neutrons are considered “heavy” particles, while electron are  considered “light” particles    Atomic number­ number of protons  Atomic mass­ number of protons + number of neutrons  Ion­ charged atom  Isotope​­ atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of  neutrons (ex. Carbon 12 is the most common form of Carbon which has 6  protons and 6 neutrons, but Carbon 14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons)    Uses for Radioactive Isotopes:    1) Tracer molecules ​(in research)    2) Smoke detectors    3) Pacemakers ​(though most now run on battery)    4) Diagnose diseases  ­for example, someone with irregular problems may have  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­​thyroid related problems. To check the thyroid, certain  isotopes ​­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­​of Iodine may be used to diagnose thyroid  malfunction.  *thyroid gland­ located in the neck, and releases hormone  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­​(chemical messengers) that control speed of metabolism.  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­​Hormones require Iodine    5) Treat diseases  ­for example, radiation from certain radioactive isotopes may be  ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­​ sed to kill cancer cells       


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