Biology Notes Week 2
Biology Notes Week 2 BIOL 107-06
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107-06 at Truman State University taught by Daniela Ostrowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology I in Biology at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Week 2: 8/309/5 Biology Lecture 2 cont: Chemistry Atoms ● Electrons are on different shells ● Within each shell, electrons travel in different orbitals ● Last shell=Valence shell ● First shell always holds 2 electrons, next can hold 8 Ionic Bonds ● Transfers electrons from one atom to another (this either adds or subtracts an electron, changing the charge of both atoms) ● When an atom changes and gets an electrical charge, it is now an ion ● Positive ions are usually metals and negative are usually nonmetals ● Ion pairs begin to attract and form what are called ion crystals Covalent Bonds ● Shares electron(s) between atoms ● Both atoms attract the same unpaired electrons (in the outer shell of the atoms), therefore pulling them together ● There can be double and triple bonds are well (two atoms will share 2 or 3 electrons) ● An atom’s attraction for these shared electrons is called electronegativity ● The higher the electronegativity, the stronger the attraction ● When one atom has a higher electronegativity than the other it is sharing the electron(s) with, it has a negative partial charge ● When it’s lower, it has a positive partial charge ● Nonpolar covalent bonds don’t have a partial charge ● Polar covalent bonds have a partial charge Hydrogen Bonding ● Hydrogen bonding is a weak bond between 2 water molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other Chemical reactions make and break bonds They do this by rearranging matter Week 2: 8/309/5 Chemical reactions in the body= metabolic pathways Properties of Water ● Is polar and has weak electrical attractions ● Has a bent shape ● Denser as a liquid than solid ● Is both adhesive and cohesive Adhesive Cohesive Water molecules will attach to different Water molecules are attracted to each substances other Capillarity: the tendency of a liquid in a High surface tension capillary tube or absorbent material to rise or fall as a result of surface tension Imbibition: is a special type of diffusion when water is absorbed by solidscolloids causing an enormous increase in volume ● Has a high specific heat (a lot of heat is needed to increase its temperature ● High thermal conductivity ● High boiling and freezing points ● Good evaporate coolant (why we sweat, why one’s cold when getting out of the shower) ● Universal solvent because of its polarity Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Waterloving (will dissolve in water) Waterfearing (won’t dissolve in water) Usually polar Usually nonpolar ● Acids: substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) or donate them to solutions ● Bases: substances that accept hydrogen ions resulting in the formation of hydroxide ions (OH) Week 2: 8/309/5 ● pH scale: scale used to measure acidity/basicity (alkalinity) (pH stands for potential of hydrogen) ● Buffer systems: help maintain homeostasis Biology Lecture 3: Biochemistry Introduction to Organic Compounds ● Organic molecules: composed of carbon atoms bonded to another or other elements ● Isomer: organic compounds might have same formula but but differ in structural arrangement ● Polymers: long molecules consisting of many identical or similar building blocks ● Monomers: the building blocks of polymers ● Dehydration reaction: removes a molecule of water as 2 molecules become bonded together ● Hydrolysis: breaks the bond by adding a water molecule Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides ● Monosaccharides monomers of carbohydrates ● Glucose, Fructose, Galactose are isomers (location of hydroxyl group is what differs) ● Simple sugars differ in… 1. Location of carbonyl group 2. Number of carbon atoms present 3. Spatial arrangement of their atoms Carbohydrates: Disaccharides ● 2 monosaccharides bonded together ● The covalent bond between the 2 monomers is called a glycosidic linkage Week 2: 8/309/5 Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides ● Many monosaccharides bonded together ● Either storage molecule or structural component
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