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Biology Notes Week 2

by: Elizabeth Schnarr

Biology Notes Week 2 BIOL 107-06

Elizabeth Schnarr
Truman State

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About this Document

These notes covered the 2 lectures discussed this week in class. In the first lecture, chemistry, topics such as properties of water, atoms, ionic and covalent bonds, and polarity are covered. The ...
Introduction to Biology I
Daniela Ostrowski
Class Notes
Biology, Bio, Carbohydrates, Chem, biochemistry, Chemistry, covalent, bonds, ionic, monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, polarity
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Schnarr on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 107-06 at Truman State University taught by Daniela Ostrowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology I in Biology at Truman State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Week 2: 8/30­9/5  Biology  Lecture 2 cont: Chemistry    Atoms  ● Electrons are on different shells   ● Within each shell, electrons travel in different orbitals  ● Last shell=Valence shell  ● First shell always holds 2 electrons, next can hold 8    Ionic Bonds  ● Transfers electrons from one atom to another (this either adds or subtracts an  electron, changing the charge of both atoms)  ● When an atom changes and gets an electrical charge, it is now an ion  ● Positive ions are usually metals and negative are usually non­metals  ● Ion pairs begin to attract and form what are called ion crystals    Covalent Bonds  ● Shares electron(s) between atoms  ● Both atoms attract the same unpaired electrons (in the outer shell of the atoms),  therefore pulling them together  ● There can be double and triple bonds are well (two atoms will share 2 or 3  electrons)  ● An atom’s attraction for these shared electrons is called electronegativity  ● The higher the electronegativity, the stronger the attraction  ● When one atom has a higher electronegativity than the other it is sharing the  electron(s) with, it has a negative partial charge  ● When it’s lower, it has a positive partial charge  ● Nonpolar covalent bonds don’t have a partial charge  ● Polar covalent bonds have a partial charge    Hydrogen Bonding  ● Hydrogen bonding is a weak bond between 2 water molecules resulting from an  electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative  atom in the other    Chemical reactions make and break bonds  They do this by rearranging matter  Week 2: 8/30­9/5    Chemical reactions in the body= metabolic pathways    Properties of Water  ● Is polar and has weak electrical attractions  ● Has a bent shape  ● Denser as a liquid than solid  ● Is both adhesive and cohesive    Adhesive  Cohesive  Water molecules will attach to different  Water molecules are attracted to each  substances  other  Capillarity: the tendency of a liquid in a  High surface tension  capillary tube or absorbent material to  rise or fall as a result of surface tension  Imbibition: is a special type of      diffusion when water is absorbed by  solids­colloids causing an enormous  increase in volume      ● Has a high specific heat (a lot of heat is needed to increase its temperature  ● High thermal conductivity  ● High boiling and freezing points  ● Good evaporate coolant (why we sweat, why one’s cold when getting out of the  shower)  ● Universal solvent because of its polarity    Hydrophilic   Hydrophobic  Water­loving (will dissolve in water)  Water­fearing (won’t dissolve in water)  Usually polar  Usually nonpolar    ● Acids: substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) or donate them to solutions  ● Bases: substances that accept hydrogen ions resulting in the formation of  hydroxide ions (OH​) ­​ Week 2: 8/30­9/5  ● pH scale: scale used to measure acidity/basicity (alkalinity)  (pH stands for  potential of hydrogen)  ● Buffer systems: help maintain homeostasis          Biology  Lecture 3: Biochemistry    Introduction to Organic Compounds  ● Organic molecules: composed of carbon atoms bonded to another or other  elements  ● Isomer: organic compounds might have same formula but but differ in structural  arrangement  ● Polymers: long molecules consisting of many identical or similar building blocks  ● Monomers: the building blocks of polymers  ● Dehydration reaction: removes a molecule of water as 2 molecules become  bonded together  ● Hydrolysis: breaks the bond by adding a water molecule    Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides  ● Monosaccharides­ monomers of carbohydrates  ● Glucose, Fructose, Galactose are isomers (location of hydroxyl group is what  differs)  ● Simple sugars differ in…  1. Location of carbonyl group  2. Number of carbon atoms present  3. Spatial arrangement of their atoms    Carbohydrates: Disaccharides  ● 2 monosaccharides bonded together  ● The covalent bond between the 2 monomers is called a glycosidic linkage        Week 2: 8/30­9/5  Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides  ● Many monosaccharides bonded together  ● Either storage molecule or structural component               


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