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PSCI 2054 Intro to World Politics: Week 1

by: Hardy Notetaker

PSCI 2054 Intro to World Politics: Week 1 PSCI 2054

Hardy Notetaker
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

Summary of the notes from the first week of class.
Intro to World Politics
Courtney Thomas
Class Notes
nation-states, Sovereignty, War
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hardy Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 2054 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Courtney Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Politics in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 09/03/16
8/22/2016  International Relations o Interactions between and among states. Trade, diplomacy, conflict o A state-centered world  Sovereignty: “there is no actor above the state that can compel it to act in specific ways” (Baylis, Smith, Owens)  State definition: government, monopoly on violence, population, recognition by other state, sovereign, citizens 8/24/2016  Primordial Communities o Small groups of people linked by familial ties of blood and marriage o Legitimacy derives from common ancestry o Governed by patrimonial rule o Confront resource scarcity o Focused on intergenerational survival o Disciplined by honor and shame  Transformation o The 1 Agricultural Revolution challenged kinship legitimacy and discipline o Food surpluses led to the establishment of River Valley Civilizations and early empires o Societies of strangers linked to destiny but not by blood required new forms of governance and legitimacy to resolve conflict, defend territory, manage resources, and extract taxes/conscription o Dynastic rule perpetuated the rule of blood but in the name of dominant blood lines  Emergency of States o The 2 ndAgricultural Revolution led to the rise of sovereign states across Europe  Classical monarchs became unable to extract and rule in the name of blood  Legitimacy attached to the consent of the governed rather than the blood of the governor o Paralleled by the rise of imagined political communities bound by culture, language, religion, and history  States, Nations, etc. o States: territories endowed with sovereignty and legal status in the international community to grant citizenship and govern o Nations: imagined community of people who believe they belong together and they have the right to be ruled by a government legitimated by their consent o Nation-State: a nation governed by a sovereign state o Nationless state/stateless nation  International Society o Exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values. 8/29/2016  Treaties of Westphalia (1648) – establishes the doctrine of sovereignty o A series of treaties marked the end of 30 years war in the SPQR and the 80 years war between Spain and the Dutch Republic  Initiated a new period in political history that would be based upon the supremacy of sovereign states  Included some religious freedoms and early recognition of citizenship  Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) o An extension of the French Revolution o First use of conscription based on nationalism o Defeat after rebellion in Haiti and invasion of Russia o Led to collapse of the Spanish Empire in the New World (French occupation of Spain) o Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire  Peace of Vienna (1845) o At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the leaders of Europe met at the Congress of Vienna to re-establish order across Europe. o This initiated the Age of Metternich: A 100 year period during which relative peace across Europe emerged due to the Great Power System o France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria maintained peace through diplomacy, balance of power, and luck  Fun fact: Gunpowder is made of Sulphur, Saltpeter, Charcoal. Battle during the 1800s consist of using Muskets and Cannons. British control most of the Sulphur resources, thus making British advantage. Iron and coal = steel.  Prussia and Bismarck o Prussia wants to unite “Germany” o Leadership of Bismarck o Austro-Prussian War (1866) o Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) o German Unification (1871) o Alsace-Lorraine is rich in iron and coal, thus a contested/wanted place.  End of the Age of Metternich o WW1 marked the end of the Age of Metternich  World War 1 o Total war primarily among European powers o Many causes – nationalism, arms races, imperialism, alliances, industrialization, military planning, failure of diplomacy o Led to the destruction of the remaining European empires and the establishment of sovereigns states throughout Europe o Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Philip in 1914, one of the major triggers of the WW1 o Fun fact: there is no National War Memorial for WW1  Treaty of Versailles (1919) o Not based upon President Wilson’s 14 Points o Designed to cripple Germany to prevent the outbreak of future war o War Guilt Clause o Reparations o Lost territory (Alsace-Lorraine) o Strict military limitations o Fueled German motivations throughout the Interwar Period and going into WW2 o Established the League of Nations – a very weak institution with little power or influence  The Interwar Period (1918-1939) o Economic boom followed by bust o Isolationism of the United States o Rise of Hitler and fascism in Europe  Appeasement – trying to hold the WW2 from happening o “Only makes the aggressor more aggressive” o To stall the outbreak of war and give themselves more time to prepare, France and Great Britain gave into some of Germany’s early demands  Annexation of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia  Anschluss with Austria  Remilitarization o Outbreak of war  World War 2 o At the end of WW2 the Allies were determined NOT to repeat the mistakes of 1918 o This focus would shape the next phase in international history  Often associated with the Cold War  But ALSO with the end of colonialism, the establishment of what would become the European Union, and the emergence of the United Nationsx o Nukes ended WW2


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