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Chem Chapt 1 outline

by: sml122 Notetaker

Chem Chapt 1 outline CHEM 0105

sml122 Notetaker
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
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About this Document

Chapter 1 outline first exam
Prep Chem
Professor Bell
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by sml122 Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 0105 at University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown taught by Professor Bell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

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Date Created: 09/03/16
Prep Chem Chapter 1 Elements and Compounds 1.1 Vocab and Organization i. Elements and Compunds 1. Matter- Anything that hsa mass and occupies space 2. Elements- simplest form of matter 3. Compounds- element that are combines with pther elements in a specific and constant pattern 3.a example, water and salt 4. Pure substances- contains only one kind of matter and is not easily seperated 4.a. example- elements, compunds, water, gold 5. mixtures- matter that is combined of pure substanes a. each substance keeps its individual identity b. can be seperated by physical processes b.1. example- sand, salt water 6. Heterogenous mixture- NOT uniform, has obvious different parts 6a. Example- italian dressing 7. Homogenous mixture- uniform, no obvious different parts. AKA solutions 7a. example- salt water, ranch II. Atoms and Elements 1. atom- smallest part of an element 2. Molecule- two or more atoms that are chemically bonded a. example- water b. 2:1 ratio, all water molecules have this ratio 3. Compounds- each element loses its individual identit a. contains 2 or more elemts 1.2 Chemical elements and period table I. Symbols of the elements 1. Periodic table- table that organizes elements by similarity 2. Rules for writing element's symbols a. first leter is capitalized b. when a symbol contains second and third letters they are lower case 3. Chemical Formula- consists of more than one element a. symbol for each element present is in the formula b. example- H 2, NaCl II. Finding elements in periodic table 1. Periods- 7 horizontal rows (left to right) 2. Groups- 18 vertical rows (up and down) 1.3 Elements, atoms, and atomic number i. inside the atom 1. atomic theory a. Dalton b. small, hard spheres that could combine with each other to form compounds 2. Subatomic Particles a. Proton- linked to atoms identity, a1. Positively charges, located in nucleus, adds to elements mass a2. relative mass of 1 b. neutron- b1. Neutral charge, located in nucleus, adds to elements mass b2. relative mass of 1 c. electron c1. negative charge, located outside the nucles c2. does NOT add to elements mass, VERY small 3. Electrons a. in a large diffuse cloud b. valence electrons- outer most electrons, easily move away to form chemical bonds c. core electrons- inner electrons, VERY VERY hard to move II. Atomic Number and Mass Number 1. Atomic number- number of protoms contained in one atom a. could be considered, "identifying number" 2. Mass Number a. sum of the protons and neutrons III. Atomic symbol of elements 1. Example of how they appear 2. Number of neutrons a. Mass number- Atomic Number= Num of Neutrons 1.4 Physical Properties of Elements I. What are physical properties? 1. Property- characteristic of a substance that can be used to identify substance a. generally do NOT change within samples 2. Physical property- physcal characteristic about the appearance of a sample a. Example- color, odor, hardness, malleability b. physical state- liquid gas, solid c. temperature a substance changes state (boilings, freezing) d. can be determined WITHOUT DESTROYING THE SAMPLE 3. Chemical property- whether a substance becomes something else when combined with another chemical/substance 4. Physical change- the change a substance can undergo without losing its original identity a. example- gold being hammered flat is still gold II. Physical properties and physical state 1. physical state- most common physical property a. solid, liquid, gas 2. Key components of physical state a. deposit- substance goes directly from a gas to a solid b. sublimination- substance goes directly from a solid to a gas


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