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Week 2 notes - Chapter 17 - Endocrine System - Ballpark numbers

by: Kimberly Krause

Week 2 notes - Chapter 17 - Endocrine System - Ballpark numbers 2402

Marketplace > Tyler Junior College > Biology > 2402 > Week 2 notes Chapter 17 Endocrine System Ballpark numbers
Kimberly Krause
Tyler Junior College
GPA 4.0

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These notes were MWF of week 2. We covered more in-depth to the Endocrine organs and the hormones they secreted. Then on Friday Mr. Cates went over the Ballpark numbers handout. Thyroid, Adrena...
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Cates
Class Notes
Anatomy & Physiology II, Endocrine; prolactin, Endocrine system, Endocrine Glands, thyroid
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Krause on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2402 at Tyler Junior College taught by Dr. Cates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Tyler Junior College.

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Date Created: 09/03/16
A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/29/16 Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary Hormones Review from last week. Three types of control: 1. Humoral Control: -Hypothalamus produces two hormones that directly affect the body. ADH and oxytocin. -Thyroid produces calcitonin when it wants too -Parathyroid produces parathyroid hormone -Pancreas produces -Insulin - takes up excess sugar -Glucagon - puts glucose in blood when glucose is “gone” from your blood -Adrenal Cortex produces aldosterone 2. Hormonal Control: -Hypothalamus has releasing hormones These releasing hormones send the signal hormones to these other endocrine glands, then they in turn produce the hormones that directly affect the body. -Thyroid produces T3 and T4, has to do it when hypothalamus tells to produce. -Adrenal Cortex produces androgens and cortisol. The androgens produce testosterone in males. -Gonads also produce testosterone. Two sources of testosterone in males, androgens and gonads. -Progesterone - means “before pregnancy steroid” 3. Neural Control: -Adrenal Medulla -Epinephrine -Norepinephrine ____________________________________________________________________________ Endocrine gland - Hypothalamus secretes: ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) aka: Vasopressin Ex. Elderly people were using nasal spray that contained vasopressin to clear their stuffy noses. It would constrict the blood vessels in the nose and would cause a blood pressure spike. They would get a rush of blood to parts of their brain previously lacking blood. They were getting flashbacks of memories and became addicted to the nasal spray. Three things that make the body produce more ADH 1. Deep sleep 2. Higher temperature - It saves the water in your body so it can sweat it out and keep your body cool. Alcohol makes you dehydrated because it counteracts the ADH and doesn’t allow you to sweat. Ex. In bars, bartenders feed you salty food, so you get thirsty and buy more alcohol. Then they feed you fatty foods to coat your stomach, so the effects of drinking alcohol will be delayed. 3. Low H 2 Ex. Hunters during deer season end up drinking alcohol and no water. They become dehydrated and of course pee in the tree stand which the deer smell and are scared Page 1 of 6 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/29/16 away. They don’t see any deer and become angry and end up shooting randomly and causing accidents. Two medical conditions associated with ADH. -Diabetes Insipidus - means “tasteless and boring with no sugar.” Lack of ADH. -Diabetes mellitus - means “sweet pee.” Lack of Insulin. Back in the old days they knew if someone had this by seeing if a certain type of ants that were attracted to the sugar were in the outhouse. Oxytocin How Oxytocin is released to help uterine contractions Hypothalamus is the clock or calendar of the body 1. As baby grows, the mechanoreceptors in uterus sends signals to the Hypothalamus that the uterus is getting stretched. 2. The Hypothalamus as a result, sends Oxytocin to make the uterus contract. 3. The mechanoreceptors report to hypothalamus again about the building pressure. 4. The Hypothalamus again sends more Oxytocin, making the uterus contract more. 5. Mechanoreceptors send reports and the story repeats until the baby is pushed out. Because of the constant build up of oxytocin if the baby does not get born, the mother will die. This is an example of how the body uses positive feedback to help the body. 6. After the baby is born, when it starts to nurse. There are mechanoreceptors in the nipples that causes yet more signals that release milk. And signals sent to the hypothalamus. 7. Hypothalamus sends more oxytocin, which helps the uterus to continue contracting until it is finally back down to a normal size. Picture to illustrate this: Photo credit: BioNinja Page 2 of 6 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/29/16 Endocrine Gland: Adenohypophysis secretes ACTH Hormone (Adrenocorticotropic hormone - Releasing hormone) How it’s secreted: Hypothalamus decides what you need. When the hypothalamus senses you are stressed it secrets a releasing hormone (CRH) to tell the Adenohypophysis (Anterior Pituitary) to then secret ACTH. What is it’s target? ACTH’s target is the Adrenal cortex which secrets cortisol (cortisone). Cortisol can be referred to as the “stress hormone.” It’s the stress hormone because the body thinks that if it gives your skeletal muscles glucose that will help you get out of any situation. The adrenal cortex works to produce this hormone in an “emergency” to find glucose to make energy. * Remember the our body’s 1st fuel source is the lovely GLUCOSE. The 2nd fuel source is fat, and third protein. If the body is forced to make energy through fat or protein’s there is going to be a problem! Photo credit: National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Diseases What’s wrong with burning fat as the 2nd fuel source? It’s bad because in desperately looking for energy in the fat and protein, they produce ketone acids. Ultimately, if used too often, they tear your liver and kidney up! -Ex. Like a drug addict tearing up the whole house and selling off family heirlooms in order to purchase drugs. -The immune system is suppressed -Ex. Atkins diet seems successful, but it’s forcing the body to break down fat. Rollercoaster for the body! Page 3 of 6 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/29/16 How are the ketones made? -Fat is broken down into ketones which can be used to make a little glucofor energy. (Acetone smells sweet, so you can smell that sweet smell on a person’s breath). -Protein (as a last ditch effort) can be broken down to make a very veryamount of glucosfor energy. (Ammonia smell, and you can smell that on a person’s breath too). How do we prevent being stressed and hurting our body? Some stress is good for our body, but too much as throws the ketone acids into our system. However, because the hypothalamus takes orders from the “higher brain,” the thoughts can control how stress is interpreted. A person can “fake” themselves out and the body goes into the “in distressed” mode. So, if a person can calm down and not “stress out,” they can prevent hurting the body. Who’s most likely to suffer with stress? Number 1, pregnant ladies will get pregnant diabetes. Students also suffer with a lot of stress because holidays, getting dark earlier, and tests. Depression rises during this time of the year. Doctors prescribe antidepressants, but only dulls the mind and dulls signals to the brain. Effects of cortisol on the body -Glucose levels rise -Weight loss (remember fat break up) FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone - Releasing hormone) -Women: stimulates follicles to produce eggs (fertility drugs can cause over stimulation of follicles and cause multiple egg drops and octomom). -Men: stimulates sperm production Page 4 of 6 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/29/16 How FSH is secreted Hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones to Anterior pituitary gland to secrete FSH to ovaries (during 1st half of cycle) which produce estrogen FSH target Gonads (Ovaries in women, testes in men). FSH works with LH to regulate woman’s cycle LH (Luteinizing Hormone - Releasing hormone) Main job? To cause follicle to rupture releasing egg. Follicle shell turns into yellow corpus luteum which produces progesterone. Men vs. Women Women - LH indirectly causes progesterone levels to rise and release the egg. Men - stimulates testosterone production How LH is secreted Hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones to Anterior pituitary gland to secrete LH to ovaries (during 2nd half of cycle) which produces progesterone Drawing to explain 1. FSH enters cycle at day 5 and stimulates progressively larger doses of estrogen to be released (egg is growing) 2. Day 14, LH causes follicle to burst and egg to be dropped into tubes, while progressively increasing progesterone levels. 3. If egg is not fertilized day 25 LH shuts down and lining of uterus is shed. Page 5 of 6 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/29/16 Photo credit: Facts -Pheromones are what put girls on the same menstruation cycle if they are around each other long enough. -ex. Alice in wonderland - the March Hare was in heat - so males have their own “spike in testosterone in the spring. Page 6 of 6 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/31/16 Adenohypophysis (Anterior Pituitary) Hormones continued TSH Hormone (Thyroid Stimulating hormone - Releasing hormone) -Stimulates thyroid to produce specific hormones Anterior Pituitary produces TSH to then go to the thyroid, which then produces T a3d T . 4 What is T 3nd T ? 4 T and T refer to the levels of iodine in the hormone. 3 4 Effectors that respond to increased T and3T 4 -Increased metabolic rate -Increased glucose uptake -Increased fat breakdown -Increased aerobic cellular respiration How important are T an3 T ? 4 -Nutritionally you need iodine -It was so important that US Gov put iodine in the salt -Low amounts are found in older people (think of how they want to sit) -High amounts are found in young people (think of how active kids are) Low = Hypothyroidism -Stress can cause hypothyroidism -New moms are under a lot of stress. Many people would blame new mom’s sluggishness on the baby, but in reality they would get hypothyroidism. -Medicine can treat hypothyroidism. Growth Hormone Two things stimulate more secretion of GH 1. More activity will make you grow 2. Deep sleep ex. War time children are often deprived of both these things. It is unsafe to be outside and they get woken up throughout the night. This causes the average height to be less during the war times. Prolactin -Stimulates mammillary glands to produce milk. Before and after birth. Page 1 of 4 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/31/16 Thyroid Gland Thyroid gland produces three hormones: 1.T 3 2.T 4 3.Calcitonin -We mentioned the T a3d T abo4e and separately because they are stimulated by TSH which comes from the anterior pituitary which is controlled by the hypothalamus. -See above to refresh on what these first two do. Calcitonin -is secreted directly from the thyroid gland. Purpose The thyroid gland is constantly scanning the blood and when it discovers too much calcium in the blood it releases the hormone calcitonin. -Calcitonin then stimulates the osteoblasts (of the bones) to take that excess calcium and build it up as new bone. A hint in remembering this: T (for thyroid gland) C (for calcitonin) to osteoBlasts. I have to think C goes with B. Also the thyroid gland is bigger and in the front. Think of the calcium getting built into the bone when it comes through the “front door.” But when it gets to the tiny parathyroid glands in the “back” they broken up and tossed out the “back door.” -Mega dosing in calcium is bad though as the osteoblasts run out of room to lay down the bone, so they put it on the outside of the bones. That is called a bone spur. -So, after the osteoblasts take the calcium out of the blood to lay it in the bone, the calcium level in the blood goes down. -If calcitonin is not secreted someone can easily get osteoporosis because the calcium is not being built into the bones. Women in menopause are more likely to have osteoporosis. Drawing: Page 2 of 4 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/31/16 Parathyroid Glands PTH (Parathyroid hormone) Location The parathyroid glands are the small yellow dots on the posterior side of the thyroid gland. Hormone Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone. Photo credit: Organs of the boPurpose This hormone is the counterpart to the thyroid hormone, calcitonin. PTH scans the blood and if the blood calcium levels are low, then they stimulate the osteoclasts to break down calcium from the bone in order to put it in the blood. Think of the bones as a “storage” for calcium and these two hormones working together to regulate the correct amounts of calcium in the blood. Either taking it out of the bones, or putting it back in to achieve a balance in the blood. Ex. Bone nivea drug claimed to keep your calcium levels up for a whole month. Sadly, people didn’t realize that the drug was taking it out of the bones. Side effects: loss of bone density and osteoporosis. So, back to my hint: P (parathyroid glands), P (PTH), osteoClasts - P-P-C Here’s my hint again: The thyroid gland is bigger and in the front. Think of the calcium getting built into the bone when it comes through the “front door.” But when it gets to the tiny parathyroid glands in the “back” they get broken up and tossed out the “back door.” Drawing: Page 3 of 4 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 8/31/16 Adrenal Cortex Three hormones 1. Cortisone 2. Androgens 3. Aldosterone We have already talked about how cortisone is released: Hypothalamus releases hormones to Adenohypophysis, which releases ACTH to adrenal cortex which releases the “stress hormone” cortisone. This hormone is released when the orders come from the other Endocrine glands. The last two decide when they want to be released. So, that is why these are subdivided like they are. Androgens -Stimulate bone growth -Secondary sex characteristics aka facial hair, large ears, deep voice. Male - the testosterone that it produces is good Female - the testosterone is converted into estrogen with body fat. When there is not enough body fat on girls they do not covert the testosterone into estrogen and instead start showing some of the secondary sex characteristics. -ex. Anorexic girls wanting to be thing, but turning out very boyish -ex. Chinese girls starting training for gymnastic olympics very young, before puberty, as they got older they looked boyish and were infertile. This was caused from their intense workouts not leaving enough fat on their bodies to convert to estrogen and messing up their puberty. Aldosterone -Steroid hormone -Adrenal cortex will sense that either potassium is high or sodium is low, or blood pressure is low. Effects Causes kidney to save some of the sodium from the urine and secrete potassium. Saves water. Imbalance can lead to death. The blood pressure goes down. Less urine - Aldosterone and ADH both do this Ovaries Estrogen hormone -plays key rolls in the menstruation cycle. -Holds onto fat because ladies need it for when they get pregnant. For this reason, women hold onto fat easier than men. Page 4 of 4 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/2/16 Ballpark Numbers We had just started going over the Ballpark numbers handout. This is on how to know the numbers, so we can be competent in the medical field. 1. Plasma -least consistent, most controlled by you. 2. Interstitial Fluid -Must be the correct balance to survive. Body is constantly working to maintain balance. -Only way to alter this directly with a hypodermic injection. 3. Intracellular fluid (cytosol) -inside the cell -Most consistent, least controlled by you. -Body keeps perfectly regulated to keep cells alive and running. ex. Gold Fish picture Fish’s body represents a human cell. The food, O ,2waste, and CO rep2esents the plasma, or what we can add/take away to alter the environment. The water represents the interstitial fluid. -Medicines help to regulate balance. Page 1 of 2 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/2/16 Edema What is it? It is where the interstitial fluids have excess fluid. So, swelling in the interstitial fluid. What are the effects? -Harder to diffuse nutrients (everything become diluted) -Long term edema can cause cells to die. Fibroblasts will put down their “scar tissue” in the tissue where there is edema. -Allergic reactions cause edema. Like allergic reaction to peanut butter or bee stings. -Blood volume goes down and blood pressure goes down. The only way to change it is to change the plasma. ex. UPS dropping a package off Fluid volumes: 70% infant - Baby’s have the most percentage of fluids, but they have a smaller body, so there must be care in treating them. They can’t control their urine or sweat, so they get dehydrated fast, even though they have a lot of fluids. Think of how smooth and soft their skin is, that is caused by their high amounts of fluid. 60% male - have a lot of fluid and their bodies are a little more forgiving if the meds are wrong. 50% female - float better, they have more fat. Titanic example: Girl should have been in the water, not guy. 40% senior - seniors get dehydrated very easy. Be careful when giving them medicine. They have a decreased sense of thirst and they are achey so they don’t want to get up to use the bathroom. Page 2 of 2


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