Bio 3030 Week 1 & 2
Bio 3030 Week 1 & 2 Biol 3030
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurora Moberly on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 3030 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Rachel Bolus in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biology at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Test 1: 9/19 BIO 3030 Chapter 1: Intro to Ecology Ecology: Whole science of the relations of the organism to its surrounding outside world; The study of how organisms affect and are affected by other organisms and their environment; The study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms Ecologists use three main tools: 1. Observation 2. Experiment 3. Models: Abstract version of the world that we can use to predict future events Environmental Science: Interdisciplinary field that includes the study of natural sciences and social sciences Natural systems do not necessarily return to their original state after a disturbance Seemingly random perturbations often play an important role in nature Ecological Maxims: 1. You can never do just one thing 2. Everything goes somewhere 3. No population can increase in size forever 4. There is no free lunch: An organisms energy and resources are finite and increasing inputs into one function results in a tradeoff in which there is a loss for other functions 5. Evolution matters 6. Time matters 7. Space matters 8. Life would be impossible without species interactions Ecologists must select an appropriate scale of time, measurements, ect to conduct their research in Levels of Biological Organization: Individuals, populations, communities, ecosystems, landscapes, entire biosphere Population: A group of individuals of a single species that live in a particular area and interact with one another Community: An association of interacting populations of different species that live in the same area Biotic: Living components of a natural system Abiotic: Physical environment of a natural system Ecosystem: Community of organisms plus the physical environment in which they live Adaptation: A feature of an organism that improves its ability to survive or reproduce in its environment Producer: An organism that uses energy from an external source (ie sun) to produce its own food without having to eat other organisms or their remains Consumer: An organism that obtains energy by eating other organisms or their remains Net Primary Production (NPP): The amount of energy per unit of time that producers fix by photosynthesis or other means minus the amount they use in cellular respiration Each unit of energy captured by producers is eventually lost from the ecosystem as metabolic heat and as a result energy moves through ecosystems in a single direction only (no recycling) Nutrient Cycle: The cyclic movement of a nutrient between organisms and the physical environment Landscapes: Areas that vary substantially from one place to another and typically include multiple ecosystems Biosphere: All living organisms on Earth plus the environments that they live in; Highest level of biological organization Evolution: A change in genetic characteristics of a population over time; Descent with modification; The process by which organisms gradually accumulate differences from their ancestors Climate Change: Directional climate change that occurs over three decades or longer Ecological Toolkit: 1. Replicate each treatment 2. Assign treatments at random 3. Analyze the results using statistical methods Chapter 23: Conservation Biology Test 1: 9/19 BIO 3030 Conservation Biology: An integrative discipline that applies the principles of ecology to the protection of biodiversity; The scientific study of phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss and restoration of biodiversity The Sixth Major Extinction: Current extinction rates are 1,000 times higher than natural background rates of extinction and future rates are likely to be 10,000 times higher Extinction Vortex: A cyclic chain of events ensue and an already small population drops even further in size thereby becoming even more vulnerable to genetic, demographic and environmental changes Taxonomic Homogenization: The worldwide reduction of biodiversity resulting from the spread of nonnative and native generalists coupled with declining abundances and distributions of native specialists and endemics Primary threats to biodiversity are habitat loss, invasive species, overexploitation, pollution, disease, climate change The most important threats are habitat degradation, fragmentation and loss Habitat Loss: Outright conversion of a habitat to another use Habitat Fragmentation: The breakup of a oncecontinuous habitat into a series of habitat patches amid a humandominated landscape Habitat Degradation: Changes that reduce the quality of the habitat for many species Invasive Species: Nonnative, introduced species that sustain growing populations and have large effects on communities Anthropogenic Allee Effect: When a threatened species has monetary value their increasing economic value can lead to more aggressive search and collection missions Population Viability Analysis (PVA): Allows ecologists to assess extinction risks and evaluate management options for populations of rare or threatened species; Most widely used for projecting the potential future status of populations Ex Situ Conservation: The endangered species is removed from their habitat and put under human care Endangered Species Act (1973) was passed to provide a means whereby the ecosystems on which endangered and threatened species depend on may be conserved and to provide a program for the conservation of these species U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are charged with listing federally threatened and endangered species, identifying critical habitat for each species, drafting recovery plans and carrying out actions necessary to increase abundances to target numbers Surrogate Species: One species’ conservation will serve to protect other species with overlapping habitat requirements Flagship Species: Surrogate species that help garner public support for a conservation project Umbrella Species: Surrogate species that is selected with the assumption that protection of their habitat will serve as an umbrella to protect many other species with similar habitat requirements; Typically species with large area requirements Focal Species: Several species that are selected for their different ecological requirements or susceptibility to different threats Genetic analyses have been used to understand and manage genetic diversity within rare species as well as in forensic analyses of illegally harvested organisms Biodiversity is important to humans because we rely on natural resource and ecosystem services that depend on the integrity of natural communities and ecosystems Chapter 24 Landscape Ecology and Ecosystem Management Landscape Ecology: Sub discipline of ecology that examines spatial patterns and their relationship to ecological processes Landscape: An area in which at least one element is spatially heterogeneous (varies from one place to another) Can be heterogeneous either in what they are composed of or the way their elements are arranged Mosaic: Pattern of heterogeneous elements that make up a landscape Often include multiple ecosystems There is a biotic flow between habitat patches in the mosaic as individuals or gametes move between them; For this flow to occur there needs to be habitat connectivity or the surrounding habitat (matrix) must be of a type that allows dispersal Landscape Composition: The kinds of elements or patches in a landscape as well as how much of each kind is present Landscape Structure: The physical configuration of the different elements that compose the landscape Scale: The spatial or temporal dimension of an object or process, is characterized by both grain and extent Grain: The size of the smallest homogeneous unit of study, determines the resolution at which we view the landscape Extent: The area or time period encompassed by a study Test 1: 9/19 BIO 3030 Edge Effects: Abiotic and biotic changes that are associated with habitat boundaries Core Natural Areas: Areas where the conservation of biodiversity and ecological integrity take precedence over other values Biological Reserves: Smaller reserves that have been established with the conservation of a single species or ecological community as the main objective Buffer Zones: Large areas with less stringent controls on land use and partially compatible with many species resource requirements Ecosystem Management: A way to expand the scope of management to include protection of all native species ecosystems while focusing on the sustainability of the whole system Adaptive Management: Once a new policy is implemented the ecosystem is monitored to gauge whether that action brings about the desire result, management actions are seen as experiments and future management decisions are determined by the outcome of present decisions Chapter 6: Evolution Evolution: A process of descent with modification; Changes over time in the frequencies of different alleles in a population Heritable Trait: A trait that you get genetically from your parents Natural Selection: The process by which individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce more successfully than other individuals because of those characteristics Individuals themselves do not evolve, the population as a whole moves towards favorable traits causing the population to evolve Phenotype: Individuals observable characteristics Mutation: A change in the DNA of a gene; Critical to evolution because it brings about new alleles Recombination: The production of offspring that have combinations of alleles that differ from those in either of their parents Directional Selection: Occurs when individuals with one extreme of a heritable phenotypic trait are favored over other individuals Stabilizing Selection: Individuals with an intermediate phenotype are favored Disruptive Selection: Individuals with a phenotype at either extreme are favored Fixation: An allele that occurs in a population at a frequency of 100% Genetic Drift: Chance events affect which alleles are passed from one generation to the next 1. Genetic drift can cause allele frequencies to fluctuate randomly in small populations over time causing some alleles to disappear or to reach fixation 2. Genetic drift reduces the genetic variation of the population 3. Genetic drift can increase the frequency of harmful allele 4. Genetic drift can increase genetic difference between populations Gene Flow: Occurs when alleles are transferred from one population to another via the movement of individuals or gametes 1. Gene flow causes population to be more similar to one another genetically 2. Gene flow can introduce new alleles into a population Can limit local adaptation Natural selection is the only evolutionary mechanism that consistently causes adaptive evolution Adaptive Evolution: A process of change in which traits that confer survival or reproductive advantages tend to increase in frequency over time Clines: Patterns of change in a characteristic of an organism over a geographic region Constraints on adaptive evolution: 1. Lack of genetic variation 2. Evolutionary history 3. Ecological tradeoffs (organisms ability to do one function reduces its ability to perform another) Longterm patterns of evolution are shaped by processes such as speciation, mass extinction and adaptive radiation Evolutionary Tree: A branching diagram that represents the evolutionary history of a group of organisms Speciation: The process by which one species splits into two or more species Most commonly occurs when a barrier prevents gene flow from one population to another Can also occur when two different species breed and the hybrid offspring survives and thrives Mass Extinction: Large proportions of Earth’s species were driven to extinction worldwide in a relatively short time, five have been known to happen Test 1: 9/19 BIO 3030 Adaptive Radiation: An event in which a group of organisms gives rise to many new species that expand into new habitats or new ecological roles in a relatively short time
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