New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio 97 Lecture 4 Class Notes 61860

by: Idda Colcol

Bio 97 Lecture 4 Class Notes 61860 61860

Marketplace > Irvine Valley College > Biology > 61860 > Bio 97 Lecture 4 Class Notes 61860
Idda Colcol
Irvine Valley College

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Biology 97 Lecture 3 Class Notes 8/31/2016 Mendel powerpoint slides 25 - 50
Genetics and Evolutionary Biology
Amy McWhorter
Class Notes
Product, rule, sum, dihybrid, Cross, autosomes, Carriers, family, pedigrees
25 ?




Popular in Genetics and Evolutionary Biology

Popular in Biology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Idda Colcol on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 61860 at Irvine Valley College taught by Amy McWhorter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Genetics and Evolutionary Biology in Biology at Irvine Valley College.

Similar to 61860 at Irvine Valley College


Reviews for Bio 97 Lecture 4 Class Notes 61860


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/04/16
Bio 97 (#61860): Lecture 4 Class Notes 
 (Mendel Powerpoint Slides 25 - 50) I. A single-gene model explains Mendel’s ratios A. numbers matter when it comes to determining homozygous/heterozygous 1. only one recessive offspring determines one of parents is heterozygous 2. single heritable factor II. Complications when extended to human populations A. not 100% explanation for analyzing human genes B. human traits are affected by multiple genes C. difficult to study simple mendelian genetics on rare diseases as a result of rare-alleles 1. rare alleles are hard to identify III.Product rule A. product of probability of A x product of probability of B IV. Sum rule A. one OR the other B. if these events occur together C. add the subtraction if events could happen at the same time V. Probability (Slide 34) A. ***most problems revolve around mutually exclusive VI. Dihybrid cross: two genes A. dihybrid mixture for 2 genes 1. for color and shape phenotypes B. unique ratio 1. similar to each other in terms of ratios VII.Dihybrid cross: 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratios A. 9:3:3:1 is phenotypic ratio, but can tell a little bit about genotype 1. for each gene, one dominant allele is expressed except for 32 wrinkled green B. 3:1 is the expected ratio VIII.endel’s Principle of Independent Assortment A. when 2 genes are inherited, they are passed down to next generation in same way they were first inherited B. alleles independently assort in mitosis IX. Punnett square illustrating the genotypes underlying a 9:3:3:1 ratio A. remember that test cross is a cross between unknown and known genotype X. Dihybrid test cross A. 31:27:26:26 = approximately 1:1:1:1 1. direct readout of gametes XI. Mendelian patterns of inheritance in humans A. difficult to apply genetics to human genetics B. not all phenotypes are governed by one gene C. autosomes 1. carried on chromosomes 1-22 D. heterozygotes - “carriers” 1. Aa does not have disease, but is carrier for disease XII.Family Pedigrees A. family pedigrees give us the ability to trace inheritance patterns B. use roman numerals to keep track of generations 1. ex: I - oldest generation 2. circles - females 3. squares - males 4. filled in shapes - diseased 5. empty shapes - non-diseased C. from the pedigree in (slide 47) 1. Elizabeth Eddy - carrier, “heterozygous” 2. her child dd has homozygous recessive genotype XIII.utosomal dominant traits A. if you see affected individuals in every generation, affected allele must be dominant 1. carried down every generation 2. just one dominant allele is all it takes to get affected XIV.Sample Problem A. blue - dominant B. light blue - homozygous recessive C. test cross between Aa and aa 1. chance of inherited A allele is 1/2 XV. Autosomal recessive traits A. more frequently with blood relations B. affected progeny do not necessarily have affected parents


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.