Child Psych Week 3
Child Psych Week 3 Psych 300
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 300 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sabrina Lynn Thurman (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter Three Lecture 5 August 29. 2016 Outline Principles of hereditary transmission Gene and chromosomal abnormalities Genetic counseling Developmental and behavioral genetics Principles of Hereditary Transmission Genotype Set of genetic traits a person inherits A person’s inborn capacity or potential Phenotype Set of traits a person actually displays Combination of the person’s genotype (potential) and life experiences that modify person’s behavior The Building Blocks of Heredity Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Blueprint for genetic inheritance Nucleotide Repeating basic building block of DNA Consisting of nitrogen-based molecules: Adenine, thymine, and cytosine, guanine (AT and GC) Pairs match up in pairs and create patterns of gene Gene Large segment of nucleotides In DNA Codes for the production of proteins and enzymes Allele Alternate form of a speciﬁc gene Provides a genetic basis for many individual diﬀerences Gene Expression Homozygous Genotype in which two alleles of a gene are identical Have the same eﬀects on particular trait Two alleles for blue eyes, two blue eyes Heterozygous Genotype in which two alleles of a gene are diﬀerent Diﬀerent eﬀects on a trait One allele blue eye, one allele brown eye Dominant Allele Allele whose characteristics are reﬂected in the phenotype even when part of a heterozygous genotype Brown eyes Recessive Allele Allele whose characteristics do not tend to be expressed when part of a heterozygous genotype Blue, green, hazel, etc. Chromosomes Threadlike structures of DNA Located in the nucleus of cells X Chromosome: Larger of the two sex chromosomes Normally females have two, males one Y Chromosome: Smaller of the two sex chromosomes Normally females have none, males have one Karyotype Pictorial representation of an individual’s chromosomes Autosomes One of twenty-two pairs of homologous (similar) chromosomes Gametes Sex cells Sperm in males, egg in females Cell division through process of meiosis Meiosis: split contains half of genes from each parent Polygenic Phenotypic characteristic inﬂuenced by two or more genes Epigenetics Investigate how environmental factors interact with DNA and its transcription into mRNA How this inﬂuences cell functioning and the phenotype Lecture 6 August 31. 2016 Gene and Chromosomal Abnormalities Mutation Sudden change in molecular structure of a gene Sickle Cell Anemia: Genetic blood disorder Large proportion of crescent-shaped red blood cells Ineﬀective in transporting oxygen Common in regions where malaria is found Common among descendants of the people of these regions Chromosomal Variations Down Syndrome Inheritance of extra chromosomal material on chromosomal material on pair #21 Intellectual impairment Distinct physical features Genetic Counseling Who should seek genetic counseling Couples who already have a child with some serious defect Couples with a family history of a genetic disease or mental handicap Couples who are blood relatives (ﬁrst or second cousins) Individuals from high-risk ethnic groups Any woman thirty-ﬁve years or older Women who have had a serious infection early in pregnancy or HIV-positive Women who have taken potentially harmful medications early in pregnancy or habitually use drugs or alcohol Women who have had X rays taken in early pregnancy Women who have experienced: stillbirth, death of a newborn baby, miscarriage Prenatal Diagnosis Amniocentesis Sampling the ﬂuid surrounding the fetus Insertion of a needle Used to diagnose fetal genetic and developmental disorders Ultrasonography: Use of sound wave reﬂections Representation of the fetus Used to estimate gestational age Detect fetal physical abnormalities Developmental and Behavioral Genetics Heritability Proportion of variability in the phenotype that is estimated to be accounted for by genetic inﬂuences Within a known environmental range Identical twins (Monozygotic) Same zygote Exact same genetic information, clones Fraternal twins (Dizygotic) Same as regular siblings, just born at the same time Lecture 7 September 2. 2016 Developmental and behavioral genetics Range of Reaction Range of phenotypic diﬀerences possible with given genotype Result of diﬀerent environments interacting with a speciﬁc genotype Passive links Parents transmit traits through genes, the environments they provide, or both Religion Reactive (Evocative) links People react to the characteristics of the child’s genotype Engaged babies get more social interaction Active (Niche Picking) Tendency to actively select an environment compatible with a genotype Temperament: Stable, early-appearing constellation of individual personality attributes Believed to have a hereditary basis Includes: sociability, emotionality, activity level, etc. Chapter 4 Outline The stages of prenatal development Teratology Risk factors influencing prenatal development Birth The newborn The stages of prenatal development Prenatal Period Conception to the onset of labor Postnatal Period After birth Also referred to in terms of trimesters First trimester (week 1-12) Second trimester (week 13-27) Third trimester (week 28-birth) Indication of viability Increases dramatically in third trimester Placenta Support organ formed by cells from both blastocyst and uterine lining Serves as exchange site for oxygen, nutrients, and waste products Umbilical cord Conduit of blood vessels Transports oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between placenta and embryo Amniotic sac Fluid ﬁlled, transparent protective membrane Surrounds the fetus Principles of Teratology Teratogens Environmental agents that cause deviations in development Teratology Study of birth disabilities and behavioral problems Environmental inﬂuences during prenatal period Critical or sensitive periods Teratogens eﬀects depend on the stage of development during which exposure occurs Dose response relationships Amount of exposure to teratogens inﬂuences their subsequent eﬀects Drugs Prescription and frequently used over the counter drugs Alcohol, Amphetamines, Antibiotics, Antidepressants, Antiepileptics, Aspirin, Bar bituates, Lithium, Sex hormones, Vitamins, Caﬀeine, Tobacco
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