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Week Two Notes

by: Ashley Choma

Week Two Notes Comm 101

Ashley Choma
GPA 3.0

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These are book and in class notes for week two!
Communications in the 21st Century
Dr. Aaron Duncan
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Choma on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 101 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Aaron Duncan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Communications in the 21st Century in Communication at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Communication in the 21 Century COMM 101 Week Two in Class & Book Notes Pages 27-52 Reading Assignment for 8/29 Introduction: Studying Communication  From the time of ancient Greeks until the 18 century, the study of communication focused primarily on the art of persuading others through speech & was called rhetoric  Elocution: emphasizing voice, diction, and gesture Chapter 5: Communication Study Today & Tomorrow  Challenges Facing Social Scientists o Has a reputation of being a “soft science” because of its imprecise nature o The phenomena social scientists study are abstract; they are not concrete & easily measurable  Challenges Facing Humanist Scholars o The problem of achieving agreement on what constitutes knowledge and what constitutes scholarship  The Challenge of Changing Technology o It is advancing so rapidly that it overwhelms researchers’ ability to fully study & understand its social & personal effects o Information overload & digital divide  Areas of Specialization in Communication Research o Rhetorical theory & criticism o Argumentation o Interpersonal communication o Relational communication o Small group communication o Organizational communication o Mass communication & media studies o Political communication o Public relations o Intercultural communication o Family communication o Health communication o Conflict management o Nonverbal communication o Communication technology & telecommunication studies  Enduring Issues Confronting the Field o The nature of communication and the scope of communication study o The primary purposes of communication study  For some, the purpose is simply the pursuit of truth  For others, the purpose is practical application 8/29 In Class Notes Communication Study Today & Tomorrow  Communication Study Today o Communication studies make use of a variety of methods of investigation including quantitative, qualitative, ethnographic, and rhetorical models o Comm. studies uses both social scientific & humanistic methods of study  Challenges Facing Social Scientists o First, studying human behavior is a complex process, b/c human beings think & act on a variety of factors o Second, social science is naturally imprecise that the phenomena social scientists study are abstract; they are not concrete or easily measurable o Capital T(ruth)  Challenges facing Humanist Scholars o What is a humanist? o For humanist scholars “truth” is not a fixed, absolute reality waiting to be discovered and reported o Humanists have a more subjective view of the world o Social scientists have a more fixed & object view of lower case t(ruth)  Postmodern Scholars o Generally skeptical of simplistic explanations of reality o Postmodern scholars reject this belief and focus on turning a critical lens to cultural, arts, politics, etc. o Often attempt to deconstruct messages to determine the values they promote o Critical = power  The Challenge of Changing Technology o Technology has the most daunting challenge of comm. scholars o New technologies make communication easier and faster across both space & time o This creates communication & information overload o It redefines the very boundaries & interactional nature of interpersonal communication o Digital divide: the division that exists between those people who have access to the internet & digital communication & those who do not o Media literacy is important & we need to be wise consumers of information Pages 55-69 Reading Assignment for 8/31 Chapter One: The Beginning of Communication Study  Adversary system: created by Greeks as an alternative to fighting themselves  Democracy was adopted as a replacement to tyranny in Athens  A Market for Communication Knowledge and Skill o As Athenian citizens seaked improvement in their speaking ability – created market for knowledge & skills in public speaking  The Sophists o The systematic study of communication began in Athens during the 5 century B.C. o Sophists: persons who studies & taught persuasive public speaking o Rhetoric: persuasive public speaking o Corax – credited w/ inventing the study of rhetoric, w/ identifying the different parts of a speech, and w/ defining the concept of probability o Protagoras – built upon the concept of probability and contributed the important idea that there are two sides to every argument (the “father of debate”) o Gorgias – public speeches can excite/inspire people  Kairos: the concept which states speakers should adapt their oratory to suit the audience & the occasion o Hippias – advocated that speakers must be broadly knowledgeable about a subject/subjects o Isocrates – brought together much of the teachings of 5 th century B.C. sophists  Plato’s Shadow o Socrates (diff. guy than Isocrates) believed T(ruth) to be absolute and permanent o Socratic Method: drawing out, or “educing” truths o Plato opposed democracy on the fundamental grounds that T(ruth) is fixed & should be systematically sought by philosophers (like Socrates)  Aristotle’s Resolution o Observed systematically o T(ruth) is all around the environment and is to be taken in through the senses o Formal logic: logic guides thoughts to sure conclusions o Syllogisms: specific claims based on observation are combined w/ known universal principles to draw conclusions o Recognized that most decisions in matters of state rest no on certainties but on these relative probabilities o On matters for which certainty cannot be reached, advocacy/debated are the best available means of discovering what is most probably true o Define rhetoric as “the art of discovering all the available means of persuasion in a given situation” o Enthymemes  Rely on premises that are generally or probably true  Parts of the argument are often left unspoken and filled in mentally by the audience o Many of the basic concepts that frame & guide the contemporary study of human communication (Rhetoric):  Communication is “purposive”  Communication efforts (oratory) can be categorized by purpose & situation into 3 types:  Forensic oratory: speaking in the courts as an adversary  Deliberative oratory: speaking in the Assembly to influence a decision  Epideictic oratory: speaking at a ceremony on a special occasion to inspire listeners  Persuasion is accomplished through a combination of 3 kinds of appeals:  Ethos (source credibility)  Logos (argument)  Pathos (emotional appeal) o Learning to speak effectively is a matter of developing 5 skills:  Invention, disposition, style, memory, & delivery  Contribution of Plato & Socrates to the Study of Communication o Socrates offered a valuable ideal in viewing communication as an act of intimate relationship & reciprocity, resulting in the discovery & appreciation of truth & beauty o Plato added greatly by describing the limits of rhetoric’s value & its potential for misuse 8/31 In Class Notes The Beginning of Communication Study  Advocate o The concept of advocacy is rooted in the rhetorical tradition of Ancient Greece  Ancient Greece o Public speaking and advocacy were essential skills in Ancient Greece o The adversary system was invented as a means of settling disputes w/o violence; a 3 party would serve as judge & both sides would make arguments of their cases o Athens is considered by many to be the birthplace of democracy o Unlike our system today, average citizens were expected to present their cases in court & before the Athenian Assembly o Today, we have specialized professionals who represent us in court & government  Skills of advocacy are still essential to our everyday existence  The Sophists o The earliest teachers of public speaking in Ancient Greece o They called their discipline rhetoric o Mostly taught public speaking but also did some writing o The most influential of the Sophists was Isocrates  Texts were best preserved & his teaching influenced Aristotle and others o They challenge the belief that life was predetermined by the Gods & advocated for the belief of free will o Argued that the way to find truth was through debate  Plato’s Shadow o Socrates teaches Plato  Plato teaches Aristotle o Plato believes absolute T(ruth) is out there o Aristotle – common sense, T(ruth), public speaking  Aristotle’s Resolution o Believed that T(ruth) did exist & it was able to be found through things such as formal logic & reasoning, ala Plato o Accepted the fact that truth cannot always be found  Aristotle’s Contribution to Rhetoric o Ethos: credibility o Pathos: emotions o Logos: logic o Epidictic speaking: religious speakings, a Priest would speak like this, speeches of praise, funerals o Forensics speaking: court room, layers, guilty or innocent o Deliberative speaking: politicians would use this kind – always about the future o Learning to speak – 5 skills:  Invention: ability to generate ideas  Disposition: ability to organize the ideas of maximum impact  Style: ability to use language appropriately  Memory: ability to remember facts/ideas  Delivery: ability to speak in strong voice


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