Week One Notes cont.
Week One Notes cont. Psyc 287
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Choma on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 287 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Pearce in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Psychology of Personality PSYC 287 Week One Notes cont. 8/25/16 Book Notes Chapter 2: Personality Research Methods Psychology’s Emphasis on Method o Scientific Education & Technical Training Research emphasizes thinking over memorizing Technical training teaches one to use what is already known; scientific training teaches one to explore the unknown Research: the exploration of the unknown Personality Data o Funder’s Second Law: there are no perfect indicators of personality; there are only clues, and clues are always ambiguous o Funder’s Third Law: something beats nothing, two times out of three o Four Kinds of Clues Ask the person directly: S-Data self-judgments Face validity: they are intended to measure what they seem to measure, one their face Advantages: o Large amount of information o The S-data you provide can reflect complex aspects of character that no other data source could access o Access to thoughts, feelings, & intentions o Definitional truth o Causal force o Self-verification o Simple & easy Disadvantages: o Maybe they won’t tell you o Maybe they can’t tell you o Too simple & too easy Ask somebody who knows: I-Data Judgments by knowledgeable “informants” about general attributes of the individual’s personality Advantages: o A large amount of information o Real-world basis o Common sense o Definitional truth o Causal force The expectancy effect/behavioral confirmation Disadvantages o Limited behavioral information o Lack of access to private experience o Error o Bias Life outcomes: L-Data Verifiable, concrete, real-life facts that may hold psychological significance Advantages: o Objective and verifiable o Intrinsic importance o Psychological relevance o Mulitdetermination Watch what the person does: B-Data Observations of a person’s behavior in daily life or in a laboratory Natural B-Data Laboratory B-Data o Experiments; physiological measures Advantages o Range of contexts o Appearance of objectivity Disadvantages o Difficult & expensive o Uncertain interpretation o Quality of Data Reliability: measurements that reflect what you are trying to assess and are not affected by anything else Measurement error Aggregation Spearman-Brown formula in psychometrics: the technology of psychological measurement, quantifies how it works Validity: the degree to which a measurement actually reflects what one thinks or hopes it does Constructs: something that cannot be directly seen or touched, but which affects and helps to explain many different things that are visible Construct validation: the process of testing the assumptions behind a construct such as intelligence or sociability Generalizability: to what else does the measurement or the result generalize Generalizability over participants o Gender bias o Shows versus no shows o Ethnic & cultural diversity The Burden of Proof Research Design o Case Method: involves closely studying a particular event or person in order to find out as much as possible Advantages: the method that does justice to the topic a well-chosen case study can be a source of ideas sometimes the method is absolutely necessary Disadvantages: The degree to which its findings can be generalized is unknown o An Experimental & Correlational Study Experimental: get a group of research participants & randomly divide them into two groups Correlational: no experimental groups; everybody is treated the same o Comparing Experimental & Correlational Methods Both methods attempt to assess the relationship between two variables Experiments: the presumably causal variable is manipulated Correlational: the same variable is measured as it already exists 8/25 In Class Notes The 4 basic types of data collected by personality psychologists: o S-Data (self-report) – efficacy expectations Disadvantage: you can lie, your mood can change the way you respond, used so much it’s almost treated like the standard o I-Data (informant) – other individuals will provide their insight (someone who knows you/the participant) Uses all the same methods as S-Data Advantages: people you know may have insight you don’t have; multiple sources Essentially, reputational data Disadvantages: informant is limited to the exposure he/she has to you; different contexts; don’t have access to private thoughts/feelings; informants can be wrong; can be biased o L-Data (life outcomes) – any kind of public info. Advantages: objective & verifiable Disadvantages: hard to tell cause o B-Data (behavior) – watch people-sometimes can be collected in experiments; inkblots; physiological measures Disadvantages: can be hard to interpret why the behavior is performed o The best types of data are going to include all these types of things
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