Week 2 Lecture Notes: Organic Molecules, Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, Cell Cycle, & Mitosis
Week 2 Lecture Notes: Organic Molecules, Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, Cell Cycle, & Mitosis Bio 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Pat Dimaandal on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 001 at University of California - Merced taught by Manilay in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Biology - Lecture in Biology at University of California - Merced.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Week 2 Lecture Notes: Organic Molecules, Cells, Eukaryotic Cells, Cell Cycle, & Mitosis Carbon Chemistry Hydrogen = 1 valence electron Oxygen = 2 valence electrons Nitrogen = 3 valence electrons Carbon = 4 valence electrons Remember “HONC”. By remembering this, you can also remember the number of valance electrons each one has by the order of the letters. Why is Carbon useful? - Can have 4 covalent bonds - Can have a huge amount of diverse arrangements - Can form large, complex molecules such as…. Carbohydrates Lipids (Fats) Proteins (Meat) Nucleic Acids (Sugars) (Brain stuff) F: energy, structure F: energy,structure F: diverse F: instructions for functions, building & enzymes, reproduction transport, receptors, antibodies, and more 1) Monosacchari 1) Fats: Monomer -> Monomer, des (a Glycerol, 3 Amino Acid (20 Nulceotide monomer) -> fatty acids used) -> Peptide Phosphate Group- fructose, (2+) Ribose/Deoxyribos ribose, 2) Phospholipi e glucose ds: 4 lvls of protein 2) Disaccharides Phosphate structures -Nitrogenous base group, 1) Primary (aa Glycerol, 2 seq.) -Polymer = RNA fatty acids 2) Secondary or DNA 3) Tertiary 4) Quaternary It helps to relate them to food to remember. How do organic molecules come together to form biological cells? Systems of Biology Organic Molecules Interacted together and The first cells formed! :D - Carbohydrates new functions were - Lipids created; aka “emergent - Proteins properties” - Nucleic Acids Systems Biology: the study of how new properties of life come from complex interactions of its components. Intro to Cells The basic unit of life are cells. - Which have 2 categories among them. Prokaryotes Eukaryotes - Simple structure - More complex cells - No nucleus - DNA enclosed w/in membrane - No membrane-bound organelles bound nucleus - Internal membranes form organelles - These cells, like us, have organs too; these are called organelles. Below is a list of a few of them. Nucleod - Site of where DNA is found (different from nucleus) Glycocalyx - Outer gelatinous covering ( which is made of carbohydrates) Cytosol/Cytoplasm - Site of Metabolism Ribosomes - Synthesize polypeptides Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane - Encloses the cytoplasm Cell Wall - Provides support and protection Intro to Eukaryotic Cells Learning Outcomes 1. Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic 2. Differences between bacteria vs animals cells vs plant cells Eukaryotic cells have… DNA inside a membrane-bound nucleus. Organelles With membrane-bound compartments – each of them have a unique structure/function Have dynamic organization – meaning that all the organelles work together Variety Including different shapes, sizes, and organization of cells Differences between species Differences between specialized cell types Speaking of organelles, there are some that are believed to be derived from an ancient symbiotic relationship – mitochondrion and chloroplasts. According the endosymbiosis theory, mitochondrion and chloroplasts were once bacteria that had an endosymbiotic relationship with another bacteria. This relationship is called endosymbiosis – a symbiotic relationship in which the smaller species lives inside the larger species. This is some evidence for the endosymbiosis theory Both have their own DNA Both can replicate separately from the nucleus (they go through binary fission instead of the cell cycle). Both can synthesize ATP These features also relate to the fact the mitochondria and chloroplasts are semiautonomous organelles. - “autonomy” = independent - They are semiautonomous due to being able to… o Grow/divide to reproduce themselves o Contain their own DNA and divide by binary fission o Not be completely independent, they depend on the cell for the synthesis of internal components Including those 2 previously mentioned organelles, you must be able to identify these organelles Names of Organelles How I remember them Endoplasmic Reticulum UPS (processes what the nucleus wants) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes The UPS trucks carry the packages out to the state postal service Golgi Apparatus The postal service organizes which mail boxes it goes in. Mitochondria Memes – The Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. Chloroplasts The eco-friendly mitochondria meme version Cytosol Just really powerful liquid. But in the analogy’s case…the fluidity of people’s desires on the internet as they purchase on Amazon for Cyber Monday. Plant Cell Wall The kind of wall Trump wants for the US except nothing can get through it and his head. Plants are just nicer. Ridiculous things help people remember. Like memes. Intro to Cell Cycle Learning Outcomes 1. Prokaryotic Cell Division 2. Eukaryotic Cell Division 3. Checkpoints 4. Terms 5. Sister Chromatids 6. Mitotic Spindles Prokaryotic Cell Division - Binary fission: Basically splitting into 2 Eukaryotic Cell Cycle “omnis cellula e cellula” Every cell originates from another cell. (It sounds like a spell from Harry Potter cuz Latin.) A series of repeated rounds of cell growth and cell division extending back to the beginnings of life nearly 4 billion years ago. Highly regulated series of events Cell division occurs via meiosis/mitosis Cell Cycle Phases G1: 1st Gap S: Synthesis of DNA G2: 2 ndGap M: Mitosis/Cytokinesis Terms to Know Chromatid vs Chromatin Sister Chromatid vs Chromosome Centromere & Kineticore Homologous Chromosomes (Homologs) Overview of Mitotic Cell Division - Divides to produce 2 more cells genetically identical to the original. - Original : mother cell :: new : daughter cells - The process of mitosis ensures that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of genetic material - Used for asexual reproduction or for development and growth of multicellular organism - Involves Mitosis and Cytokinesis Mitosis: the division of one cell nucleus into 2 w/separation of sister chromatids Cytokinesis: follows mitosis to divide the cytoplasm into 2 daughter cells G1: 6 chromosomes, 2 sets of 3 each S: 6 pairs of sister chromatid Mitotic Spindle This is responsible for organizing & sorting the chromosomes during mitosis. It is composed of microtubules (proteins that are part of the cytoskeleton). The centromeres define the poles at each side of the cell. Also, human cells don’t divide in sync
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