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BIO 0150; Week 1

by: MaKayla Lowe

BIO 0150; Week 1 Biology 0150

MaKayla Lowe
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These notes consist of what was taught and required to read for the first week of biology 0150
Intro to biological sciences
Lesley Ashmore
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by MaKayla Lowe on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 0150 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Lesley Ashmore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Week of 8/28/16-9/2/16 2.1 CHEMICAL EVOLUTION: Origin of life 1. Pattern Component: CLAIM about the natural world  Molecules & complex carbon substances are required for there to be life 2. Process Component: EXPLAINS pattern (how it happens)  Simple chemical compounds formed complex substances before the evolution of life Chemical evolution -> Biological Evolution - Energy led to extremely “complex carbon-containing” substances - Compound then began replicate itself & turn into to biological evolution (a substance) Atom Structure Electrons orbit the nucleus Atomic nucleus- made up of protons & neutrons Orbital can hold up to 2 electrons Atomic weight= AVG of all mass #’s Dalton: unit to measure mass of P,N,&E Protons: Positively charged (+) Neutron: Neutral #P = #N Electron: Negatively charged (-) # of Protons always stay the same # of Neutrons CAN vary BUT when they do they change into ISOTOPES ISOTOPES - A form of an element with diff # of neutrons - They’re stable but not always Ex. Carbon has 6 protons, 8 neutrons UNSTABLE RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE  It will decay & neutrons change to protons  Concerts from 14C to 14N isotope of nitrogen; 7 protons 7 neutrons HOW ELECTRONS ARE ARRANGED AROUND THE NUCLEUS Electrons move ‘around’ orbitals Hold up to 2 electrons Orbitals are levels Electron shells have diff # of orbitals Electrons fill inner shells first *# of electrons is the atomic # Valence shell: outer most shell; usually needs electron Valence Electrons: unpaired electrons  # of unpaired electrons called its VALENCE; Atom MOST stable when full Shell becomes filled through STRONG Chemical Bonds -Attraction that bind atoms CHEMICAL BONDS: - The way valence shells can be filled Covalent Bond: Sharing Electrons **E.N: ELECTRONEGATIVITY - 2 Atoms share 1 or more electrons MOLECULES: when atoms are held together by covalent bonds To know: Opposite charges attract, Like charges repel ELECTRONEGATIVITY - Measures how “strong” an atom will attract another atoms electrons - The amount of strength an atom uses to bring other atoms into its valence shell - Atoms hold electrons tighter than others b/c they have stronger E.N AFFECTED BY…. # of protons + distance between nucleus & valence shell E.N GREATEST TO LEAST***** O>N>C≈H Oxygen has the strongest electronegativity, then nitrogen, then carbon and hydrogen which are “equal” (they have the same electronegativity “strength”) To Know: Ways to find if a molecule is Polar or Nonpolar..?  NONPOLAR NONPOLAR POLAR - Equal sharing of electrons C-H O-H Ex. C-H B/C they have the same amount of E.N O-O O-C & the electrons are equally shared N-N N-H POLAR - Unequal sharing of electrons - Electrons are close to the nucleus of the atom with higher E.N Ex. WATER; b/c oxygen is high in E.N the hydrogen electrons are pulled toward the oxygen atom ABOUT “PARTIAL CHARGES” Partial negative charges are on the atom where the electrons are closest to Partial positive charges on atom where electrons are farthest from Ex. In example above (WATER) partial pos: hydrogen && partial neg: oxygen 1. Ionic Bonds: Exchange Electrons - Electrons are “transferred” or given to another atom to fill their shell The atom then turns into a cation or anion Cation: Positively (+) charged ion Anion: Negatively (-) charged ion Ex. MAKING SALT… Sodium(Na) gives Chloride(Cl) an electron stabling both; b/c Na lost an electron it became a CATION Na^+ && Cl gained an electron it became an ANION Cl^- KINDS OF BONDS Single bonds: CH4 Double bond: CO2 Triple Bond: N2 STRUCTURAL DIMENSIONS  Linear structure  Tetrahedral - Triangular/pyramid like shape b/c electrons repulse (repel/go against) each other  Planar/2D/Bent REPRESENTATIONS OF MOLECULES H | Molecular Formula: CH4 NH3 H2O Structural: H-C-H BALL&STICK && SPACEKILLING (drawings) | H 2.5 IMPORTANCE OF CARBON Organic Molecule: Molecule w/ carbon bonded to other atoms ***Carbon is the most versatile atom b/c of their 4 valence electrons -Provides Structural Framework 1. Carbon chain & rings form skeleton of ALL organic chemicals - Basically carbon is the base 2. Functional groups modify the properties of carbon skeletons - Functional Group: Any molecule with carbon “backbone” To Know: How functional groups change the skeleton? 3. Carbon has 4 Valence electrons - Always “attached” to hydrogen - Carbon skeleton diagrams are “simplified” visual of organic molecule & show functional group (reference power point side 5&6) To Know: What is a “carbon skeleton diagram”? - Molecule of what looks like a bunch of lines BUT are carbon molecules that are not labeled (every Carbon molecule *usually* connected to hydrogen molecule) - Carbon or hydrogen molecules NOT labeled everything else is FUNCTIONAL GROUPS - All POLAR except Sulfhydryl - Phosphate and carboxyl are negatively charged and act as acids in neutral pH aqueous solutions - Amino groups are positively charged and act as bases in neutral pH aqueous solutions 1. Amino (+): Acts as a base - Attract protons to form 2. Carbonyl (): - React with certain compounds to produce larger molecules 3. Hydroxyl (): - Highly POLAR; Makes compounds more soluble(able to be dissolved) - Can act as a weak acid 4. Carboxyl (-): Act as an acid - Lose a proton in solution 5. Phosphate (-): Act as an acid 6. Sulfhydryl (): 2.2 PROPERTIES OF WATER **Water is vital because it’s a great SOLVENT Solvent: An “agent” for dissolving substances into SOLUTION - What substances dissolve in EX. Boiling salt in water; WATER is the SOLVENT salt will dissolve in && SALT WATER is the SOLUTION Solution: A liquid with 1 or more dissolved solids or gases Solute: Any substance dissolved in a liquid WHY IS WATER SUCH A GOOD SOLVENT? 1. H2O is a polar molecule (& polar molecules love water) 2. Water is a bent molecule - Partial negative charge on oxygen sticks out giving water overall polarity HYDROGEN BONDS - An attraction between partial (-) neg & partial (+) pos - Not strong bonds b/c just an attraction Ex. WATER; Partial (+) charge on Hydrogen on 1 water molecule attracts partially (-) oxygen on a different water molecule && this forms a HYDROGEN BOND - Form between water molecules & other polar molecules H2O + Ions - Makes it possible/Allows almost any polar or charged molecule to dissolve in water HYDROPHOLIC (Water-loving): POLAR MOLECULES Ex. Ions & polar molecules stay in “solution” (liquid w/ dissolved stuff) b/c of their attraction to water’s partial charges HYDROPHIBIC (Water-fearing): NON POLAR MOLECULES  Compounds/ molecules that are uncharged + nonpolar - Don’t dissolve - Droplets - Sink or float (depending on density) Ex. Fats and Oils (have most stored energy HYDROPHOBIC INTERACTIONS - H2O molecules interact with one another and surround nonpolar molecules To Know: What properties are correlated with H2O’s structure? 1. Bent Shape 2. High polar covalent bond Cohesion  Attraction between 2 LIKE molecules Ex. WATER; It stays together [B/C of hydrogen bonds formed] Adhesion  Attraction between UNLIKE molecules Ex. Water sticking to a beaker *Meniscus/concave surface in glass tube -Results in upward &downward force pull of water SURFACE TENSION - Occurs with water @ the surface that has no H2O molecules above for hydrogen bonding


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