New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Neurophysiology 313

by: Mark Hedinger

Neurophysiology 313 BIOH 313-001

Mark Hedinger

GPA 3.97
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Neurophysiology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Neurophysiology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Lecture and book notes for week one of Neurophysiology. Chapter three is covered for the first week.
Noudoost, Behrad
Class Notes
Science, neurophysiology, week1




Popular in Neurophysiology

Popular in Department

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mark Hedinger on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOH 313-001 at Montana State University - Bozeman taught by Noudoost, Behrad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views.


Reviews for Neurophysiology 313


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/04/16
Neurophysiology BIOH 313 Behrad Noudoost MD, PhD Week 1 Notes—Book/Lecture Chapter 3—The Excitable Membrane Two Classes of Cells in the Nervous System 1. Glial Cells a. Provide mechanical and metabolic support to neurons i. i.e. support cells ii. transfer nutrients and other vital components to nerves 2. Neurons (Nerve Cells) a. Sends signals to other cells i. Propagation of signals b. Process information from other cells and determine when to send an action potential and when to not send one i. Action potentials are all or nothing signals The Structure of Neurons  A typical neuron consists of dendrites, the cell body, and the axon o Please label the following neuron, and describe the Photo courtesy of : %201%20online/lab1/3.htm function of each. 1. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 3. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 5. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 6. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 7. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 8. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 9. __________________________________________________________________ _____________________ 10. ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ Chapter 3—Introduction  Even the most minute signal in the neuron system requires the nerve to collect, distribute and integrate information  The simple reflex is an involuntary automatic response to a stimulus.  It contains three key steps 1. Initiation a. A receptor is stimulated due to a change in its membrane potential caused by an external (or internal) stimulus. i. E.g. Stubbing ones toe causes pain receptors to be stimulated 2. Propagation a. A signal is propagated along sensory neurons to the posterior side of the spinal cord. b. The signal stimulates a motor neuron c. The signal also stimulates a neuron which travels to the brain i. This is a secondary-type signal. It explains why you pull your hand away from a hot stove before your brain tells you that “this stove is hot and now your hand is burned” ii. One reason the body has simple reflexes is evolutionary. The body wants to get away from danger before even realizing what that dangerous stimulus is. 3. Termination a. The action potential received from the sensory neuron is sent down a motor neuron (who’s dendrites are located in the anterior side of the spinal column). The motor neuron propagates the signal to an effector, which reacts to the stimulus. i. For example your quadriceps relax and the hamstrings contract resulting in flection of your leg to get away from the painful stimulus caused by stubbing your toe. ii. Then the brain process the secondary signal and you realize that your toe is in pain and you are left doing the one legged hop and saying “oww oww oww”  Action potential o A rapid change in membrane potential resulting from the opening and closing of voltage-gated channels o A signal o Do not diminish along the length of an axon  All or nothing—either a signal is sent or it is not. There is no such thing as a partial action potential  Excitable membrane o A membrane which is capable of generating action potentials o If it is at rest, it is not generating action potentials  Has a negative charge on the inside compared to the outside  Also known as resting membrane potential  Sodium is higher on the outside, potassium is higher on the inside “The Cast of Chemicals”  Three main players of resting membrane potential 1. Salty fluid on both sides of membrane 2. The membrane itself 3. Proteins which span the length of the membrane Cytosol and Extracellular Fluid  Main component of the fluid inside a neuron, the cytosol (surrounds neuron) and extracellular fluid is water. o Water’s most important property is its polarity o Like dissolves like  The polarity of water allows it to dissolve charged or polar molecules. For example NaCl dissolves in water because Na and Cl are charged and have a stronger attraction with water molecules than they do to each other  Ions  Atoms or molecules with a net charge  Cations—net positive charge  Anions—net negative charge o Water creates spheres of hydration around molecules which insulates molecules (or ions) from one another The Phospholipid Bilayer  Made up of two layers of phospholipids o Have a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-hating) tail o Separates the internal and external environments  Contains proteins o Proteins make up enzymes, the cytoskeleton, receptors, channels and pumps o Made up of amino acids connected via covalent bonds between an amino group and a carboxyl group—peptide bond  Synthesized in ribosomes  A single chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide o 20 different amino acids  page 56. Flashcards are helpful for memorization of these o Four structures of proteins 1. Primary structure a. Peptide bonds link amino acids 2. Secondary structure a. Interactions (hydrogen bonds) cause the polypeptide to form into an alpha helix or beta- pleated sheet 3. Tertiary structure a. Interactions between R groups results in a 3-D structure and gives the protein a specific shape 4. Quaternary structure a. Tertiary proteins can join together to make complex proteins capable of performing specific functions i. Sodium-potassium pump, channels, voltage- gated channels, etc.  Ion channels o Allow ions to travel through the membrane  Ions cannot diffuse through freely due to their charge o Can be active or passive  Active channels (require energy—ATP, and goes against concentration gradient)  Ion Pumps (Sodium-potassium pump)  Cotransport  Endocytosis  Passive Transport (along concentration gradient)  Simple diffusion (oxygen diffuses through membrane)  Osmosis (water diffuses through membrane)  Facilitated diffusion—ions diffuse through specific channels—such as leak channels o leaky channels (passive)—contribute to the resting membrane potential—always open o gated channels—have a job associated with them—opens and closes based on stimuli  voltage gated—require a change in charge (voltage) to open or close  ligand gated—required a ligand to bind to it causing a conformation change and it will open or close  phosphorylated-gated—phosphate needs to bind to open or close  Stretch gated—the stretch causes a channel to open up o Gated channels can be open, closed or inactivated  **Channel means it flows along concentration gradient, pump means it flows against concentration gradient  The size and charge of ions is what causes its specificity when passing through ion channels o Potassium is larger than sodium, but holds the sphere of hydration closer, which allows it to pass through its channel but not a sodium one. o The sodium channel removes the sphere of hydration surrounding the sodium molecule, which allows it to pass through its channel. When a potassium molecule try’s to pass through, its sphere of hydration is removed but it is too big to pass through the sodium channel.  The flux of ions is passive transport, but it is selective passive transport o Ions can only travel down their specific channels Answers to Questions 1. Cell Body (Soma) a. Houses nucleus, genetic information, organelles, and gives rise to dendrites and axon 2. Axon Hillock a. First part of axon. Determines if an action potential is propagated or not 3. Axon a. Propagates action potential 4. Schwann Cell a. Forms the myelin sheath. Insulates the axon. 5. Axon terminals a. Release neurotransmitters into synaptic cleft 6. Node of Ranvier a. Allows for the passage of ions into and out of the axon 7. Myelin Sheaths a. Prevents ions from exiting or entering the axon, which allows the signal to propagate further. Speeds up action potential. 8. Action Potential a. An action potential travels from the cell body (soma) to the axon terminals in this direction 9. Nucleus a. Contains genetic material. Site of transcription. 10. Dendrites a. Receive synaptic impulses from other neurons


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.