Anthropology week 3 notes
Anthropology week 3 notes 201g
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Graham on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 201g at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Kelly jenks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in Cultural Anthropology at New Mexico State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Anthropology Week 3 Lecture August 30, 2016 Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel was a monk in Germany (1822-1884) He experimented using true breeding pea plants, this means all the plants were pure bred for each allele, version of a gene. Experiments (8 years): Non-blending traits, as in if you breed a red bug and blue bug you don’t get a purple bug but either a red or blue bug. He determined that there are particles which determine traits. LAW OF SEGREGATION: An individual receives one genetic particle from each parent and each retain their own separate characteristics. The allele ca either be dominant and be expressed 100% of the time when present or be recessive which is expressed only when there are no dominants for that trait in the individual This means that the below image each either receives an A copy of the allele or a copy from parents with Aa types. Since Mendel used true breeding pea plants the parents were all either AA(yellow seeds in this case) or aa(green seeds) which meant all their children were Aa, this is what happens to the following generation: The chances of getting AA =25% Aa=50% and aa=25% (these are probabilities so it is possible to result in all AA children) (the below substitutes Y for A) Law of independent assortment: different traits are inherited independently of one another; this is usually true except when traits are liked. Examples: Albinism Ability to taste PTC etc. Mendel published 6 years after Darwin Gene-unit of heredity Allele: different forms of a gene Homozygous: same allele from both parents (ex AA or aa) Heterozygous: opposite or different alleles from parents (Aa) Mendelian genetics only works if one trait is controlled by one gene and if genes are linked. Some alleles are codominant -both genes equally dominant as in blood type AB Partially dominant- as in they don’t completely cause the trait and result in a weaker or less obvious version of the trait. Polygenetic in heritance- (poly means many) Many traits controlled by multiple genes. EX: skin color or eye color (also environmental factors) MOLECULAR GENETICS: Chromosomes are coiled pieces of continuous DNA, Humans have 23 pairs, 22 are autosomal and 1 pair are sex chromosomes which determine gender (X and Y) DNA is a double helix shape (a spiraling ladder) The order of the rungs of the ladder determine genes. Three of these pairs makes a codon which indicates a specific amino acid. These show what order to put amino acids to make a protein.\ The human genome: contains 25,000 functioning genes (1-2% of the entire genome) CELL REPLICATION MITOSIS-creates copy of cell once to cause growth, healing, or replace cells. The daughter cells have copies of parent cell’s DNA Meiosis- creates gametes (sex cells) by replicating twice once like mitosis the second time splitting the pairs of chromosomes causing variation in the daughter cells Allele- variations of the same gee Genotype- the types of alleles used for a certain gene that determines the trait and phenotypes such as AA or aa Phenotypes- the physical expression of the genotype Trait- the phenotype and environmental factors combined. VARIATION Mutation- A chance alteration of genetic material produces a new variation. This is in the Gamete (sex cell) before baby is born or cells of baby replicate. Results in a new allele. Due to copying errors as shown below: Mutations are random and are not adaptive responses. MODERN THEORY OF EVOLUTION: Evolution: changes in Allele frequencies over time I a specific population. Microevolution- short term change in a species, with in thousands of years Macroevolution- long-term evolutionary change leading to new species. MEMORIZE: 4 EVOLUTIONARY FORCES 1.Mutation-random creation of new allele 2. Natural selection-environmental pressures leading to change in allele frequency 3. Gene Flow- change in gene frequency due to sudden immigration 4. Genetic drift- random gene frequency change due to reduction of population (death, migration etc.) More significant in small populations. Fission-splitting of population into smaller group: Causes founder effect: genetic differences in populations due to founding populations genetic variations. Niche construction- organisms impact on physical environment EX cities. Evolution doesn’t necessarily improve species. LECTURE September 1, 2016 RACE She had us write down what we thought defined race and why that wasn’t always consistent and was more a social than biological construct. Species is a community able to interbreed and reproduce Gene pool- all genes in a population Gene frequency- frequency of which certain alleles occur in a gene pool Sub species- population that differs in allelic frequency than other populations Generally rejected Problem with race biologically speaking 1. Arbitrary; no agreed upon definition of required difference to constitute a race. 2. no exclusive possession of genes and gene flow between racial groups. 3. Difference between individuals in a race are greater than differences between populations. (a Caucasian person can be more related to an African person than another Caucasian) Fingerprint studies (Dermatoglyphics): Commonality by location of origin: Loops: European, sub Saharan Africa and east Asia Arches: central European, bushmen of south Africa Whorls- Australian aborigines and Mongolia ??????????? SEE NO OBVIOUS CONNECTIONS General variations such as Caucations have light eye color while darker skin individuals don’t are wrong as often as not. LITTLE TO NO GENETIC DIFFERENCES: NON MENDELIAN GENETICS Not all traits are controlled in a simple way and it is not immediately obvious what traits use what amount or type of gene. Polymorphic Characteristics controlled by a single gene with more than two types of alleles Example blood type A, B, O, AB POLYTYPIC- distribution of polymorphic traits geographically. CLINE: The graduation over space in form or frequency of a trait Genetic drift in and out of population would cause spread of a mutation such as B blood type. Clinal Analysis of body shape Bergmann’s rule: Larger animals in colder climates EX: ice age mammoths and giant sloths so Large chunky people because surface area: volume ratio reduces heat loss. Allen’s rule: shorter limbs in colder climbs to prevent heat loss and longer limbs in hotter areas to lose excess heat. Thompson’s Nose rule: noses are longer in colder climates to allow air to warm longer before entering lungs. SKIN COLOR: Melanin: the pigment of skin. Melanocytes produce melanin. Melanocytes are Influenced by genes and environment. In areas with lots of UV exposure More Melanin protects from UV rays and too much vitamin D production. Some Vitamin D is necessary. Skin color matches up with UV radiation focuses. Sickle cell anemia: Hemoglobin: HbA is around large surface area and can carry lots of O2 and rarely gets clogged in veins. HbS is mutant and sickled and has less surface area for O2 and clogs easily. Thus those with only sickled cells die young. Malaria is in these areas where sickle cell anemia is common. This is because sickle cells that contract malaria burst, killing the malaria. So Malaria kills those with no Sickle cell anemia and Sickle cell anemia kills those with only sickled cells or AA but those with Aa survive. This is called balance polymorphism- heterozygotes are more evolutionary fit than either homozygote. FIN Thank heavens that too forever
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