Lifespan Notes Week 3
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2010 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 3 (cont.) 8/29/16 APGAR scale • Appearance (pink) • Pulse (>100) • Grimace (want them to) • Activity (strong) • Respiration (crying is good) Other • Hospital Stay o 48 hours recommended (if no complications) • Maternal death rates: rising in U.S. due to… o Birth complications o C-sections o Older moms o Obesity Preterm babies • Outcome depends on weight (around 2 pounds is often cut off) • Around 22 weeks is “age of viability” o And still about 50% will die • Survival requires expensive, lengthy hospital stays • Causes o Multiple births o Too little time between pregnancies o Mother too young o Health of mom (stress) • Post mature: placenta wears out, lower blood supply, and riskier delivery Infant Mortality • U.S. compared to other industrialized nations o Higher infant mortality than other industrialized nations – because of poverty and lack of insurance • Ethnic differences o About 2.5x higher in African Americans than non-Hispanic whites o For immigrants, increases after they come to U.S. • Another fact – U.S. has vaccination rates lower than many countries – ranks 84th in world for measles, 89 for polio Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) • “Real” SIDS may be related to prenatal smoking, drinking, drug use – neurological issues • Many cases may actually be suffocation • Babies should be put to sleep Alone, on their Backs and in a Crib (ABC) • Nothing should be in the crib (no toys, blankets, bumpers, etc.); rates 2x as high among African-Americans Chapter 3 (cont.) 8/31/16 Postpartum Depression • Likely to hormone shifts • Impacts babies who display little emotion and act detached and withdrawn • Treatment helps!!! Early Learning Capabilities • Classical conditioning: Little Albert, Pavlov’s dogs o Sucking reflex à head stroking paired with sweet tasting liquid à leads to sucking when head is stroked • Operant conditioning (behavior-consequence à behavior) o Suck on nipple-mom reads à sucking • Habituation: decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus o No longer new and exciting, so their interest decreases o When we introduce something new, we get an orienting response: quiets, attentive, slowed heart rate o Helps us learn about babies’ abilities o Present at birth, but becomes more pronounced with maturation Social Competence • Can discriminate between facial expressions of sadness, surprise, happiness • Can imitate these expressions- leading to the beginnings of social interactions and understanding of others’ emotional states • Recognize mom’s voice immediately • Recognize mom’s face within hours • Recognize dad at least within days Chapter 4 9/2/16 Physical Development • Principles of growth of development o Cephalocaudal: development from head to toe o Proximodistal: development center to extremities • Nervous System and Brain o Components of neurons: cell body, axon, dendrites, synapses o By 18 weeks after conception, neurogenesis is complete o Synaptogenesis begins before birth and number increases through early childhood resulting in massive overabundance of synapses o Synaptic pruning: prune pathways not used, strengthen those used, leading to more efficient pathways § Begins in early childhood and continues through adolescence § “Use it or lose it” theory o Plasticity: developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience – high in infancy § So can get lost, like strabismus, or gain – musical skills, Braille and cortical representations o Young children may also recover more from some types of localized brain damage § But be more susceptible to other forms (such as lead poisoning)— especially in terms of IQ and very young brains o Myelin sheath: fatty insulation, speeds transmission of neural impulses § Begins prenatally and continues throughout childhood o How to enhance neural development § Provide a stimulating environment – especially through interaction – cuddle, talk, sing, play § Children choose appropriate level of stimulation – especially if parents are responsive Motor Development
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