Sexuality Notes Week 3
Sexuality Notes Week 3 HDFS 3040-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 3040-001 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality Over the Family Life Cycle in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 3: Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology (cont.) 8/29/16 Menstrual Cycle Problems (cont.) • Dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation o Primary (caused by overproduction of prostaglandins) o Secondary (caused by a range of other factors including endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, etc.) • Amenorrhea: absence of menstrual periods o Primary: never have had a period § Causes include problems with reproductive organs, hormonal imbalances, poor health, etc. o Secondary: once had a cycle but now don’t § Causes include anorexia nervosa, high levels of exercise, anabolic steroid use, stress, etc.) Menopause • Perimenopause: slowed production of estrogen by ovaries o Up to 10 years before menopause o Change in menstrual patterns, sexual response • Menopause: cessation of menstrual periods (average age is around 51) o You’ve officially hit menopause when you haven’t had a period for a year o Most symptoms occur 2 years before and after (not everyone experiences symptoms) o Hot flashes is the most common symptom § Vary by person, ethnicity o Other common symptoms: thinning of vaginal walls, decreased lubrication may impact sexual pleasure § Primary treatment is vaginal estrogen creams o May be at more risk for UTI’s Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) • Controversial • In 2002, NIH halted Women’s Health Initiative trails because of increased rates (26%) of breast cancer in women taking HRTs – when fewer women took the hormones, rates of breast cancer in postmenopausal women dropped 11% and estrogen-fueled tumors dropped 15% • Also found: 29% more likely to have a heart attack – especially if over 60 • Increased risk of stroke, blood clots, memory loss • Positive impacts of HRTs o 35% reduction in colorectal cancer o Decrease in hip fractures Gynelogical Health Concerns • UTIs o Drink cranberry juice (helps prevent, but not adequate to cure) o Urinate after intercourse or after anything is put into the vagina o Wipe front to back o See book for other ways to avoid • Vaginal infections o See book for ways to avoid § Wear underwear lined with cotton o Why is it important to use a condom if you have more than one sexual partner? § Vaginal fluids are very acidic; semen is very alkaline and after intercourse, the pH of the vagina increases for several hours, making it susceptible to bacterial infections § With regular partner, vaginal pH adjusts rapidly, but with multiple partners, it doesn’t adjust as rapidly so risk for infection increases rapidly (unless partners use condoms) • Pap smears: to detect cervical cancer o Get one between 3 years of being sexually active or at age 21, whichever comes first o Most cervical cancers caused by Human Papilloma virus (HPV) o Over 25% of college students infected with HPV o Vaccine now available for young girls (have to have it before exposure to HPV) – and boys o Have regular pap smears – it could save your life o But HPV is also a cause of oral, anal and penile cancers • Ovarian cancer o Hard to detect o Report any abdominal or pelvic pain, bloating, feeling full, difficulty eating that lasts for 3 weeks. Early detection is the key o CA125 blood tests may be useful, but both false positives and negatives § False positive: says you have cancer but you don’t § False negative: says you don’t have cancer but you actually do Chapter 3: Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiolo gy (cont.) 8/31/16 The Breasts • Practice regular self-exam and get regular mammograms beginning by age 40 (or earlier if medically indicated) • Breast cancer o In young women, more aggressive and higher mortality rates o In men, because of late diagnosis, high mortality rates • Risk factors that you can impact o Weight gain- in younger women, doesn’t increase risk but in postmenopausal women, it increases the risk 2-3x and starts at BMI of 27 (5’5” weight 165) o Hormones (HRT; body fat) o Exercise- at least 30 minutes/day – brisk walking or better o Limit exposure to pesticides, plastics, etc. (see book) o Births before 30 and breastfeeding are protective o Limit alcohol consumption • Risk factors that are hard to impact o Age- average age of diagnosis is 62; highest rates in those over 70; overall risk = 1 in 8 o Family history- risk is 2x as high if you have a first-degree relative o Genes- BRCA-1 or BRCA-2 § 60% lifetime risk – but only about 5% of cases o Breast density o Menstrual periods (starting early, menopause late) • DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ): early stage breast cancer o Confined to the ducts- means it won’t spread yet o Hard to diagnose o Can lead to overtreatment Sex Trafficking 9/2/16 Sex Trafficking Defined • Modern day form of slavery in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act is under the age of 18 years • Victims include girls and boys, men and women, with the typical age of abduction ranging from 9-19 • Terms ‘human trafficking’ and ‘sex slavery’ conjure up images of young girl beaten and abused in faraway places Global Epidemic • Domestic and international victims in the millions, with an estimated 12.3 million adults and children worldwide • Majority is international, with victims taken from less developed areas and moved to more developed ones • Also occurs domestically, with an estimated 30,000 – 50,000 sex slaves in captivity in U.S. at any given time • “Big business” and organized, violent business with hierarchy and worth $32 billion in 161 countries Risk Factors • Currently, an estimated 293,000 American youth at risk of becoming victims of commercial sex exploitation • Includes runaway or thrown-out youth, homeless youth who live on streets, youth from families of abuse, neglect and abandonment • Now includes those from “good families” that lead normal lives, are good students and have money Victims Targeted • Troll places where under-age girls gather, work and socialize • Targeting poor areas and individuals with economically disadvantaged backgrounds • Target those looking for protection, companionship and affection • Identifying victims who dream of bright, prosperous futures and tap into vulnerability • Need younger and younger girls because they are ‘more pliable’ so typical age is plummeting Victims Taken • Children recruited through forced abduction, pressure from parents, or through deceptive agreements • Perpetrators promise marriage, family lifestyle and support that victim may not have at home • Promises of glamorous lifestyle, modeling contracts, or babysitting jobs • Other perpetrators use violence, gang rape and coercion (staged rescue) ***Indoctrination • Oftentimes, victims are forced to travel far from their hones and are isolated from everything and everyone outside • Traffickers use force, drugs, emotional tactics and financial methods to control their victims • Take victims’ identity forms, leaving victims unable to support themselves and oftentimes returning • ***Use of “debt-bondage” where victims are told they owe money and must do sexual acts to repay debt
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