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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey N Detrick on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at Elon University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Topics in General Biology in Biology at Elon University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Week One: 8/29 – 9/2 Chapter One: Process of Science 1. Observation: CEll Phones What are What is there i.e. they? effect on us? a. Observations are often unreliable and untested i. “Anecdotal Evidence” 1. i.e. chat room or web M.D. 2. Formulate a Question a. Ex. Do cell phones correlate to cancer? 3. Rely on Previous Research: a. Has someone else answered this research? b. Peer Reviewed Scientific Literature: i. Expert telling you if it qualifies for publishing 4. Hypothesis: Ex. I think ____ is going to happen because based on [insert scientific reasoning or logic]. a. Supported hypothesis: correct hypothesis b. Hypothesis has to be: i. “Testable”: The ability to perform an experiment ii. Has to be able to be “falsified” iii. Never proven 1. Do not write “proven” on any assignment // There are only “theories”: Strongly supported evidence. 5. Experiment: a. Treatment Group vs. Control Group: Experiment Control 1 variable being tested Comparison Group // No Change (Cellphone Users) (No Cellphone) b. Control Group: taking out the bias i. “double blinds studies”: 1. Neither test subject nor observer knows which “treatment” (or lack of treatment) ea. subject is receiving. c. Independent Variable: i. The variable that is being changed 1. Ex. use/no use of cellphones d. Dependent Variable: i. The data you put into excel spread sheets (measurements/units) ii. Ex. How many brain tumors? Test Subject # of Tumors T1 1 T2 0 T3 2 T4 1 6. Conclusion: a. Ex. Always evidence based: i. Refer to half sheet hand out on Cellphone & Cancer: Good Qualities Bad Qualities ü Large Sample Size v Only children being sampled ü No Ethical Problems v Cultural differences (universal health care) ü Multiple Regions v Geographical isolation ü Phone Records v Different cellphones not ** most important** accounted for b. Sample Size: i. The more data collected in an experiment, the more you can trust the data. ii. “Statistically Significant” 7. Publication: a. Need publication otherwise your study means nothing b. Always use “correlation” NOT “proves” i. “correlation” DOES NOT prove “causation” c. Things to put in publication: i. Randomized Clinical Trail: Tumor Cases Men Cases Women Categories Non- 1853 1 1455 1 Subscription Subscriptions 324 1.08 32 .98 Yrs. Subscribed -------- ------- ------ ------ 1-4 85 1.2 8 .087 8. How to Trust Conclusion: Read Articles a. Is it peer reviewed? b. Is it recent? c. What is the sample size? d. What are the other factors the author didn’t consider? e. Is it randomized? f. Are there other papers to back it up?