Practical Criminology, Radicalization, and Types of Terrorism
Practical Criminology, Radicalization, and Types of Terrorism DSC 4012
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kamila Timaul on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to DSC 4012 at Florida Atlantic University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Terrorism in Criminal Justice at Florida Atlantic University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Terrorism and Homeland Security, 9e CHAPTER 2 Learning Objectives • Explain the value of practical criminology for law enforcement and security forces. • List the differences between terrorists and ordinary criminals. • Explain the importance of radicalization and alienation. • Summarize two recent case studies of radicalization. • Describe the opposing views about prison radicalization • Summarize the controversy regarding the use of the concept of radicalization. • Identify three different types of terrorism. • Define lone wolf terrorism. • Explain the ways small and large groups use terrorism. • Describe the manner in which guerrillas and insurgents use terrorism. Criminology • Criminology as applied to terrorism looks at prevention and apprehension. • Terrorists commit crimes as they struggle for a cause; they sets them apart from ordinary street criminals. • As first responders, law enforcement personnel must recognize the differences between typical criminal behavior and terrorist activity. Practical Behavioral Differences Terrorists 1. Focus their actions toward a goal 2. Are dedicated to a cause 3. Rarely cooperate with officials because they do not wish to betray their cause 4. Tend to attack 5. Strike against targets after careful planning 6. Prepare for and rehearse their operations Criminals 1. Are unfocused 2. Are not devoted to crime as a philosophy 3. Will make deals to avoid punishment 4. Usually run when confronted with force 5. Strike when the opportunity to do so is present 6. Rarely train for crime Radicalization and Alienation • As with other areas of terrorism, the areas of radicalization and alienation are fraught with differing views and suggestions for research. • Researchers will obtain more fruitful results by examining militant ideology and finding the concepts that are shown to attract followers. Research Criticized The idea that research in radicalization and alienation will produce valuable knowledge is debated. o No general consensus about the definition of radicalization. Term is utilized in a variety of different contexts. Suggested that more beneficial results would be gained through the examination of militant ideology and concepts that attract followers. Research in Group Processes A number of researchers believe members of terrorist groups go through decisionmaking processes as they are being radicalized. – The general knowledge of radicalization is incomplete. Path and Routes • Horgan believes researchers should search for the “routes to terrorism.” • Horgan is concerned with: – The psychological processes that lead people to terrorist groups. – The issues that keep them in the group. – The support for people who want to leave. Sageman’s Model Radicalization is a sixstep framework. – Alienated young man – Meets other alienated young men and form bond – Groups gravitate toward religion – Religion interpreted in militant terms – Militant group meets terrorist contact – Militants join terrorists as a group decision Cases of Radicalization Individual cases in the U.S.: – Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab • Destroy a Northwest airliner as it entered American airspace. – James W. von Brunn • Shooting in the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. – Omar Hammami – Muslim father and Christian mother – identity conflict • His identity conflict ended when he embraced a violent, intolerant form of Islam to become a commander in Al Shabaab. Jaffrey Khan struggled emotionally, attending several schools and often getting into troubleA school acquaintance described Khan as "slightly disturbed.“ no interest in religion until making a sudden conversion, then became devout, grew abeard and began researching conflicts in the Muslim world, growing "hateful" of America Rasel Raihan • enlisted with ISIS in July 2014 • took the battle name Abu Abduallah alAmriki • killed in Syria Commonalities in Radicalization Using previous three individuals – several common forms of behavior. – First all three men all came from welltodo, middleclass environments. • The New York Times reports that most international attacks against the U.S. in the 21st Century have come from welleducated terrorists from the middle class. – Second, all three men became deeply angered and filled with moral indignation. • Alienated from mainstream thought as they expressed anger, and they sought to address their situations by doing something meaningful. – Lastly, there was some type of event that triggered their final decision to take violent action. Individual Radicalization Evidence suggests radicalization is not always a group process. o At the least, it involves individual reflection whether a group plays a role or not. Research indicates individual psychological and sociological factors create the framework for interpreting reality. Groups in Prison • Recent reports suggest that groups are being radicalized in prison. • A leader often targets selected prisoners or dominates new inmates using intimidation to force them until they join the group. – Mark Hamm maintains recruitment is similar to procedures used by street gangs. Questioning Prison Radicalization • Many terrorists have been in prison, but there is scant evidence that they were radicalized within the walls. • Exposure to radical theology was the most common denominator in their decision to engage in violence. • Terrorists should be separated from the general population to eliminate their influence. Rejecting the Term • Some scholars question the value of the term. • Others vehemently reject it. • From the perspective of practical criminology, some practitioners believe that research in radicalization and alienation will produce valuable knowledge. • Neither scholars nor practitioners are quite sure about the meaning of radicalization. Models of Terrorism • Three models represent general trends from 1945 to the present: (1) Lone Wolf, (2) Small group, (3) Tactics of insurgencies and guerrilla movements • Models help to explain the evolution and practice of contemporary terrorism. • They embody the philosophy behind particular types of terrorist movements. Lone Wolf Religion helps to produce the lonewolf avenger: o A person who has a particular ideology but isn’t part of a group An individual lonewolf avenger needs to find some type of justification for his or her actions, and religion provides the perfect path. Lone Wolf Lonewolf avengers have a special, narcissistic relationship with their deities. o They create a god in their own image. o They become the ultimate loners—they are the most difficult type of terrorist to deter or detain. Small Group Terrorism • The model for modern urban terrorism was intellectually championed by Frantz Fanon. • He produced two works as a result of his Algerian experiences: – The Wretched of the Earth (1982) – A Dying Colonialism (1965) Frantz Fanon, Part 1 • Western powers have dehumanized nonWestern people by destroying their cultures and replacing them with Western values. • Decolonization was destined to be a violent process. • Achieving freedom was inherently violent. Frantz Fanon, Part 2 • Guerrilla warfare and individual acts of terrorism as tools of revolution. • Fanon argued that terrorism should not be used against the native population in general. • His proposed two targets for terrorism: – White settlers – Native middle class Carlos Marighella • Brazilian legislator • Nationalistic Communist Party leader • Revolutionary terrorist • Designed practical guides for terrorism that have been employed for more than 40 years • Wanted to move violence from the countryside to the city Guerrilla Warfare • The Cuban Revolution popularized guerrilla warfare throughout the world. • Guerrilla revolutions based on the Cuban experience are typified by three phases: – Phase one begins with isolated groups. – Phase two merges groups into guerrilla columns. – Phase three brings columns together in a conventional army. Insurgency • Focus on insurgency due to a small group of officers who began looking at military failures during the Vietnam War • Impossible to fight insurgencies with military tactics designed for terrorism or guerilla war Insurgency • At the end of the Cold War, various insurgencies began growing in the vacuums left by the superpowers. • Technology and weapons helped many insurgencies grow. • New political atmosphere made the rise of organizations like al Qaeda possible. Chapter Summary • Theories of terrorism are important, but law enforcement, intelligence, and military forces are also served by developing a practical understanding of the type of terrorism they are facing. • Radicalization is the process of adopting violent extremist views and acting them out with terrorist actions. Many social scientists believe this is caused by alienation. • Three types of terrorism involve lone wolves, small groups, and large groups. Lone wolf violence seems to be increasing and some groups encourage it.
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