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HA Chapter 2 Notes

by: Alexis Collier

HA Chapter 2 Notes BIOL 2110K

Alexis Collier

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Study Guide for Chapter 2
Human Anatomy/Physiology I
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Collier on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2110K at Georgia State University taught by Borek in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy/Physiology I in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
1. What is a chemical element? How many naturally occurring elements are there?  Substance made up of only one kind of atom  92 naturally occurring 2. What is the smallest stable unit of matter? Define proton; neutron, electron. How are these subatomic particles arranged to form an atom? atom is the smallest stable unit of matter  proton is a positive charge  neutron is neutral charge  electron is a negative charge  proton and neutron in nucleus; electron in electron cloud around the nucleus 3. Why is the number of electrons in the outer level of an atom important?  It determines if the atom wants to lose or gain electrons to have a full outer level 4. What does the atomic number of an element tell us?  The # of protons 5. How is the atomic weight(mass) determined?  # of protons and neutrons in the nucleus mass 6. Is the atomic number different in isotopes of an element? The atomic weight? Why?  No, because the # of protons (and electrons) remains the same  The atomic weight is different because they have a different # of neutrons (atomic weight atomic # = # of neutrons 7. What is an ion?  Atoms or groups of atoms with either a positive or negative charge (depending on if it gained or lost electrons to complete octet rule) 8. What is an ionic bond? What causes the charge on an ion?  When a positive ion and a negative ion come together through electrostatic interaction and they, form a lattice salt crystal. The charge is created by gaining or losing electrons 9. What is a compound?  When two or more elements come together and bond 10.How is the molecular weight of a compound determined?  Add all the weights of the individual elements (and how many of each there are) 11.What is cation? An anion?  Cation=ions w positive charge; loses electrons  Anion=ions w negative charge; gains electrons 12.What are covalent bonds? How are they formed?  Sharing of electrons between atoms  Atoms share electrons, so both can have a full set of valence electrons 13.What is a hydrogen bond? What causes 'polarity' of the polar molecules involved in the hydrogen bond?  A hydrogen bond is a weak chemical attraction between molecules (intermolecular attractions)  It is an attraction between a partially positive hydrogen atom and negative atom within a molecule i. positive hydrogen atom and negative atom causes the polarity 14.Hydrogen bonds are used for what purpose?  Polarity and characteristics of water 15.Matter exists in what forms?  Solid, liquid and gas 16.One inorganic compound is the most abundant compound in the body, what is it? What properties make is such a useful component of living things?  Water  Cohesion: attraction between water molecules (many hydrogen bonds together causes them to be strong)  Surface tension: inward pulling of cohesive forces at the surface of the water  Adhesion: attraction between water and then another substance  Specific heat: the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius  Heat of vaporization: heat required for the release of molecules from a liquid phase into the gaseous phase for 1gram of a substance 17.What do inorganic acids, bases, and salts have in common? How do they differ?  All involved with H2O i. acids dissolve into H2O to produce Ht and can anion > proton donor ii. bases accept H+ when added to a solution called a proton acceptor iii. acids have more H+ ions, bases have more OH ions iv. salts dissolve in water 18.Describe the concept of pH. What are you measuring in pH? What is considered neutral?  Neutral equal concentration of H+ and OH ions;  Acidic solutions have a higher H+ concentration  Basic solutions have a lower H+ concentration (higher OH concentration)  measuring H+ concentration in pH 7 is considered neutral 19.What is dehydration and hydrolysis? Which process requires water to be added, which one removes water?  Dehydration: one subunit loses an H, and the other subunit loses an OH to build a macromolecule and to form H2)  Hydrolysis: H added to one subunit and an OH added to another subunit to breakdown a macromolecule; H2) used to break it down 20.What is a mixture, a solution, a solute, a solvent, suspension, colloid?  Mixture: combine two or more substances (substances can be separated by physical means)  Solution: homogenous mixture in which substance is smaller than 1 nanometer, and it dissolves in H2O  Solute: dissolved substance in a solvent  Solvent: substance in which something dissolved  Suspension: material larger in size than 100 nanometers mixed w/ H2O; large particles sit on bottom  Colloid: protein of size from 1100 nanometers smaller particles scatter but don’t settle 21.What is osmolality?  Most body fluids have a concentration _________ mOsm number of particles in 1kg of H2O  275295 mOsm per liter OR 275295 mOsm per kilogram 22.What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in carbohydrates? What are simple sugars that are monomers, or structural units for the other carbohydrates called?  1:2:1 for carbohydrates  carbon, hydrogen, oxygen  glucose is most common simple sugar 23.If making a disaccharide what chemical reaction occurs? What units make a starch?  Disaccharide, combining two so.  Dehydration synthesis > water is taken out loses an H and an OH 24.How do lipids compare to carbohydrates as to specific elements involved in their makeup and ratio of hydrogen to oxygen?  Glycerol (carbohydrate and 3 fatty triglyceride acid chains)  1:2:1 ratio for glycerol 25.Fats are made up of two basic structural units; what are they? What are triglycerides? What is their purpose?  Carbon and Hydrogen  Long term energy storage is the purpose and is made up of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains 26.What are steroids used for in the body?  cholesterol  precursor molecule for synthesis of other steroids  regulatory molecules 27.What is the primary function of a phospholipid? How are they organized?  major component or membranes  glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate, various organic groups 28.What are structural units of proteins?  amino acid  centrally located  carbon, amine, carboxylic acid and R group 29.Describe the makeup ratio of an amino acid.  Amine, carboxylic acid, central carbon, R group 30.What other element beside carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen do proteins always contain?  nitrogen 31.What are peptide bonds?  Link the amino acids that form during dehydration 32.What is meant by primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins?  Primary: sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds  Secondary: structural pattern from hydrogen between amino acids  Tertiary: 2 dimensional share/repeating  Quaternary: two or more separate proteins 33.What do we mean when we say that a protein is denatured? How do they become denatured?  The activity of protein is disturbed or terminated  including temperature and changes in pH 34.What is a substrate?  Material or substance on which an enzyme acts 35.Why are nucleic acids so important in livings things?  They make DNA and RNA 36.What are structural units of nucleic acids?  nucleotides 37.What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?  Phosphate, nitrogenous base, sugar 38.What are the 5 different nitrogenous bases?  A, T, C, U, G 39.In what ways are DNA and RNA different. What are base pairs?  DNA double strand, RNA single strand  DNA: AT, CG  RNA: AU, OG 40.Why is ATP important?  Energy source 41.Is ATP made from a nucleotide?  Yes, adenine, ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate group 42.How is it different from nucleotides found in DNA?  3 phosphates instead of 1


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