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Chem 341 - Bonding in organic molecules

by: Caroline Hurlbut

Chem 341 - Bonding in organic molecules Chem 341

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Chemistry > Chem 341 > Chem 341 Bonding in organic molecules
Caroline Hurlbut
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals, how they are formed, and rules.
Modern Organic Chemistry I
Anna Elizabeth Allen
Class Notes
Organic Chemistry
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 341 at Colorado State University taught by Anna Elizabeth Allen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Modern Organic Chemistry I in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
• orbitals are the area of space where an electron can be found • atomic orbitals are orbitals belonging to a single atom • molecular orbitals are orbitals belonging to a single molecule, electrons no longer localized on a single atom • overlap of like phase s orbitals (constructive)—>bonding molecular orbital (or σ orbital) • overlap of opposite phase s orbitals (deconstructive)—>antibonding molecular orbital (or σ* orbital) —if filled, the bond between nuclei weakens and eventually breaks canceled region of antibonding orbital forms node - region with no e- density • when 2 orbitals overlap both bonding and antibonding orbitals are formed bond order = (bonding e-) - (antibonding e-) 2 *bonding orbital filled first • antibonding orbitals break their corresponding bonding orbitals when filled 2 possible ways p orbitals can overlap (pi or pi* orbitals) • —perpendicular: equal bonding and antibonding, so they cancel—> no molecular orbital formed —parallel: more bonding or antibonding orbitals • guidelines for molecular orbital construction —# orbitals produced = # orbitals you start with A. need to be able to hold same # of e- —better overlap of orbitals—>stronger interaction/bond —2 orbitals interact to make low energy bonding orbital and high energy antibonding orbital A. lower energy bonding orbitals are more stable B. higher energy antibonding orbitals are more stable —orbitals produced for a molecule can be ordered by energy according to # of nodes present A. antibonding orbitals always have 1 more node than bonding orbitals making a bond is exothermic and breaking a bond is endothermic (takes energy) • • ways that bonds break —homolytic bond cleavage: 1 e- to each atom —heterolytic bond cleavage: both e- to more electronegative atom


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