BMS 300 - Cells, organelles
BMS 300 - Cells, organelles BMS 300
Popular in Principles of Human Physiology
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 300 at Colorado State University taught by John P Walrond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Physiology in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
• prokaryotes vs eukaryotes —prokaryotes A. lack intracellular compartments B. grouped into eubacteria and cyanobacteria (photosynthetic) —eukaryotes A. have membrane bound organelles • DNA organized into chromosomes, where each chromosome is a single molecule of DNA —46 chromosomes in humans —histones are DNA binding proteins, 8 histones make up a nucleosome A. DNA wraps around nucleosomes—>condensed DNA called chromatin • endoplasmic reticulum —network of membranes throughout the cell —rough ER has ribosomes and synthesizes 3 kinds of proteins A. secreted: released from cell via exocytosis B. transmembrane: incorporated into plasma membrane lysosomal: isolated by lysosomes C. —smooth ER A. no ribosomes B. synthesizes lipids —glycosyl sugars covalently linked to proteins in the ER—>proteins are glycosylated • Golgi apparatus —proteins transported her by vesicles —membrane-bound compartments for ﬁnal manipulation of proteins —packaging and distribution center of cell • lysosomes —waste disposal organelles —enzymes break down useless and non-functioning products • macrophages - endocytosis of pathogens and guiding them to lysosomes mitochondria • —double-membrane bound organelles —powerhouse of cell and produces nearly all of a cell’s ATP by oxidative phosphorylation —arose based on endosymbiotic theory —have their own DNA derived from maternal side • cell is highly organized and structured by the cytoskeleton —made of different protein polymers A. microtubules: tubulin polymer B. ﬁlamentous actin: globular/monomeric actin polymer C. intermediate ﬁlaments: neuroﬁlaments, keratin • microtubule transport (long distance) —have assembly (+) end and disassembly (-) end —+ ends face terminal end and - ends face cell body —kinesin serves as an ATPase motor: feet/heavy chains/amino terminus end binds to microtubules and head/light chain/carboxy terminus end binds to vesicles • actin transport (short distance) —vesicles bind to cortical actin meshwork on plasma membrane
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