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by: Nichole Pike

ART 3683 WEEK 3 NOTES ART 3683

Marketplace > Oklahoma State University > Art > ART 3683 > ART 3683 WEEK 3 NOTES
Nichole Pike
OK State
GPA 3.776

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About this Document

These are notes covering week 3 of class which wraps up the material that will be covered on Quiz 1.
History of 20th Century Art
Dr. Siddons
Class Notes
history, Of, 20th, century, Art
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nichole Pike on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ART 3683 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Siddons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see History of 20th Century Art in Art at Oklahoma State University.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
WEEK 3 NOTES ART 3683 DISCLAIMER: THESE NOTES WERE TAKEN FROM WHAT WAS RETAINED  FROM CLASS LECTURE AND TEXTBOOK READINGS. THESE ARE IN NO WAY  COMPREHENSIVE, BUT SHOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CLASS  MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE PROFESSOR. 8/30/16  EXTRA CREDIT OUR LAND OUR PEOPLE, SEPT 1­JAN, OSU MUSEUM OF ART ONEAL DEAL­OCT 24 6:30P­8P STILLWATER COMMUNITY CENTER, RSVP TO  THOMAS.TRAN@ARTS.OK.GOV Bauhaus and Russian Expressionism ­thinking about architecture ­during talks about architecture, artists began talking about non­objectivity  ­new inventions made skyscrapers possible and the U.S. became a pioneer for skyscrapers ­New York becomes the focus for skyscraper development; Chicago begins to compete ­not just building them but it was also about what tall buildings are supposed to look like Louis Sullivan (1856­1924) ­was called the Father of Modernism because of his contributions to skyscraper ­one of the first people to realize the concepts to modern design that exist today ­rise in affluence because of technological advances in materials and more money in circulation ­argues that skyscraper has 3 parts: base, shaft and pediment  ­because height has never been possible, people think of architecture in horizontal demands ­communicates what’s happening inside of it; not just what the exterior says Wayne Wright building in St. Louis, MO ­stretching its height to seem as one single form ­form follows function ­reflects the small footprint for a relatively large building ­form follows function doesn’t mean that the exterior shows what’s on the inside but rather using a space effectively Simplification of urban architectural forms (skyscrapers (US) and factories (EUROPE)) ­skyscrapers are prominent in U.S. and factories in Europe ­regardless of architect, buildings continue to show this simplification ­architects agree that form should follow function (Sullivan) ­agree we should create as much square footage as we can with as small of a footprint as we can ­Flat Iron building­weird angle ­base becomes the visual element by creating a distinction of the building ­Empire State Building built in 1930 and completed in 1931 ­first building to have more than 100 stories ­seen as one building rather than 102 different stories ­part of design in distance and scale EUROPE The Bauhaus (opened 1918, Weimar, Germany) ­was an art school ­WWI just ended ­Germany is politically unstable and economically challenged ­interested in progressive arts education but also reconstructive approach to economy ­Walter Gropius (German 1883­1969), first director ­taught architecture and designed school buildings ­committed to Sullivan’s ideas ­combining form follows function and buildings being efficient Walter Gropius, Shoe Factory ­started being built for Bauhaus was built ­was trying to bring together design and industry (mass production) ­if we combined design and industrial production we could have aesthetically pleasing things ­design incorporated significant innovations for factory designs ­how do we design a factory that can enhance lives ­first priority was to reevaluate work environment and what people wanted ­goal was to make building essentially transparent ­both for workers but also to provide factory transparency (rights, codes, etc.) which  benefited owners ­also about social goals; not just form following function ­design for Gropius was to be universal not hierarchical ­the Bauhaus was for everyone (demographic)­we need to forget about distinctions and start  having art in the world (fairs) ­tied to political problems post­WWI ­in 1922, Gropius joins the skyscraper business, but doesn’t win the contest ­building that won was anti­Modernist; more neo­gothic Abstraction vs. non­objectivity ­we’re going to be non­referential ­design is just about making a building (purity in what it’s trying to do) ­Cezanne is promoting abstraction ­Non­objectivity is thinking of things in their own way Suprematism ­“The supremacy of pure feeling in creative art.”­definition from Malevich Kazimir Malevich (1878­1935) ­wanted “to free art from the burdened object” ­he coined term suprematism ­was a way to get a way to purity  ­black square on field of white ­it is what it is; wanted to paint something that means nothing ­anti­tradition ­the square is the face of the new art ­part of this piece was how it was exhibited (only paint hung diagonally in corner) ­also challenges how we experience painting ­interested in painting infinity with white square on white background (social metaphor) ­paintings like this were extremely radical and believed to show people that they can think for  themselves and could overthrow all previous ideals (Stalin did not approve and Malevich and put in jail) because it challenged authority and order El Lissitzky (1890­1941) ­Russian but trained in Germany ­worked with Malevich ­Lassitsky was interested other things like psychology of color and begins working in  typography ­makes a complete image out of poem with typography design ­poems were more about visuals and was only complete with an image (typography) Lassitsky, Proun Space ­compared to Malevich’s ­Lassitsky, were unsure about what part of the room is art; is the room art? 9/1/16 In Russia, we have artists interested in the revolution and so we have non­objectivity ­paintings are based on themselves and not actual objects ­non­objectivity is revolutionary and is associated with Russian Revolution as they are trying to  invent an entirely new art form ­we see this influence in typography ­Kandinsky (Russian, 1866­1944), Point and Line to Plane, 1926 ­synesthesia is often related to Kandinsky ­psychological phenomena where sensory experiences are overlapping ­idea similar to smell a scent and tasting it ­to him a synesthesia was a step towards the spiritual ­not really interested in geometry ­doesn’t start studying art until about 30 ­by 1908 he’s pretty interested in abstraction  ­says his conversion happened by accident ­had Avant­garde influences ­focused on some folk stories­looking at the Primitivism style of Germans at this  time through the use of color ­adopts the word clang to mean multiple sensory things going on at once ­says physical sensations are temporary and can only last if a ‘soul is open’ ­his images look radically different than those like Malevich who had similar views ­it shows how similar ideas can yet be very different ­he thinks about how language is visible (ex. moving the period in the sentence)  ­it changes the language and the meaning  ­believes we get distracted by meanings ­how do we give the visual priority? By making things non­objective ­interested in ­was interested in and influence by theosophy ­through this, believed that direct experience was key ­Composition VII ­goal is to create visual image that is self­representational ­interested in an ecstatic visual ­it is also about the spiritual direct experience ­self­representational is kind of a lie because he includes symbols ­symbols were self­evocative ­trying to create a more abstract and emotional piece  Constructivists goals are to reform relationship between art and society­comparable to Bauhaus Science is occurring at the time ­1900­quantum theory ­1901­radio ­1905­Special Theory of Relatively ­1911­nuclear model of an atom ­magical thing in science where in a decade everything everyone already knew becomes wrong Kandinsky, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, 1911 ­sort of about materiality ­how does this disruption of objects affect possession and materials? ­idea about progress is about knowledge borrowed from science ­we have to move forward with science and artists have the opportunity to be ahead of science ­argument that art predicts things that science later identifies ­continues to bring back scientific metaphors ­how do art and science relate? Debate (science vs. spirituality) Kandinsky works with the Bauhaus in 1920s ­Bauhaus closed in 1930s by Nazis ­he did a variety of prints and combined his ideas of spirituality with something like Malevich  with radical art similar to radical politics ­described these as urban planning (centralized chaos) ­wanted us to see this as metaphors for different ideas that urban space can give ­pretty subjective  Picasso ­had some educational advantages because of his father ­Science and Charity ­bringing up some ideas similar to those going on elsewhere ­the two, science and charity moving together? ­accepted into art school at 13 ­in 1900, travels to Paris for the first time ­first time he sees avant­garde art and any sort of modernism ­thinking about political interests ­thinking about expressionist color­color can be expressionist ­blue period­a lot of sad people; works in this period for about a year ­Life ­supposed to get an emotional hit off of this painting and the blue ­Woman and the Crow ­interested in symbolism  ­basically all paintings are narrative ­Two Nudes ­taking him to an artistic nationalism ­interested in artistic traditions by looking at folk Spanish art ­also asking questions about form  ­less about relationship between two women, but more about looking at the form of the  body types (anti­classical) ­radical change from Life ­people are interacting in Life and body types are completely different  CUBISM ­in Paris, the emergence of Cubism (1907­1915) ­not a movement with a manifesto ­between Picasso and Braque ­mainly talk about Picasso ­these men developed them together so it’s not clear whose idea it is; collaborate on solution ­taking things we think we know and turn it into something else ­Picasso meets Braque ­the goal should be a thing and pictorial fact ­what if painting is a visual tool Picasso, Les Demoiselled d’Avigon (The Young Ladies of Avignon), 1907 ­it wasn’t about the geometry, but interested in ordinary world ­making fun of academic tradition while painting sex workers seductively and basically says that  academic nude paintings were basically selling them as sex so he proves them by painting  prostitutes ­made stuff up about things that he bought at flea markets and market stands (make them formal) ­prehistoric Iberian sculpture­painting by Picasso is similar to that of sculpture ­saying the naked body is cliché but he wanted people to look at things we know differently ANALYTIC CUBISM ­doesn’t last very long ­fragment things into different sections to create an illusion of time ­say they are painting the 4  dimension ­Picasso, Lady with Mandolin  SYNTHETIC CUBISM ­changes when they incorporate collage ­synthetic meaning bringing different things together (combination)­both things we recognize  and things that we don’t  ­started incorporating real world objects in order to really change the face of art


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