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Logical Reasoning Notes

by: Jodi DeMassa

Logical Reasoning Notes CMST 255

Jodi DeMassa
CSU Chico

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About this Document

This includes Chapter 5.
Argumentation and Debate
Sue Peterson
Class Notes
Sources of information, Reliable sources, Shifting the burden of proof, Red herring fallacy, Communications, argumentation, Debate
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jodi DeMassa on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CMST 255 at California State University Chico taught by Sue Peterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Argumentation and Debate in Communication Studies at California State University Chico.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 5    Key Concept    The reader uses the principle of charity when the writer meant to say something, but it could  easily be interpreted as silly or false. Give them the benefit of the doubt.     A good reasoner sticks to the issue.    Critical thinkers give their opponents a fair hearing.    Glossary definitions    B​ urden of proof­ the duty to prove some statement you’ve advocated. The burden is usually on  the shoulders of the person who wants others to accept his or her statement. When two people  make statements that disagree, the burden falls on the shoulders of the person making the  more controversial statement.    ​ Counterargument­ An argument that attempts to undermine another argument.    ​ Euphemism­ A more gentle word or phrase used to replace a harsh­sounding one.    ​ Fallacies­ Reasoning errors.    Falla​cy of avoiding the issue­ Failing to address the issue at hand by going off on tangents.  However, the fallacy isn't committed by a reasoner who says that some other issue must first be  settled before the original issue can be adequately addressed.    Falla​cy of avoiding the question­ A type of fallacy of avoiding the issue that occurs when the  issue is how to answer some question. The fallacy would be committed if someone's answer  were to avoid the question rather than answer it.    ​ Innuendo­ A negative suggestion made by disguised references or veiled comments about a  person.    ​ Issue­ The specific topic, subject, or central question under discussion, as opposed to the  general  topic, subject or question.    ​ Knowledge­ Truths you are justified in believing.    ​ Principle of charity­ Giving the benefit of the doubt to writers and speakers who have said  something silly or obviously false, and not taking them too literally.    ​ Position on an issue­ Your belief about how an issue should be settled.      ​ Proof­ An argument that ought to be convincing. It doesn't need to be the sort of thing you  would find in a math book. You prove a statement to other persons if you give them reasons  that ought to convince them, even if those reasons don't actually convince them.    ​ Red herring fallacy­ The error of intentionally distracting someone with a side issue or irrelevant  issue.    ​ Shifting the burden of proof­ By making a reasonable case for your position on an issue, you  thereby shift the responsibility of proof to the shoulders of your opponent who disagrees with  your position.    Key Concepts:    Principle of charity­the principle that says to interpret a claim in its best light, so, if it seems  obviously false, try to find a re­interpretation that makes it reasonable without violating the  principle of fidelity by putting words into the claimant’s mouth that the claimant would not accept.     Logical­Providing arguments for your conclusions (so reasons for you conclusions that may lead  you to other conclusions)  ● Tailoring your reasons to your audience.    Reliable sources?    ● Is the authority, an authority on the proper subject?    ● Would she know if the authorities disagreed on this subject?    ● Can you trust her to have quoted the authority correctly?    ● Can the authority be trusted to have told her the truth?    Sources of information    (1) the newspaper stories and magazine articles that profile the candidates and discuss the  issues long before election day    (2) government voter pamphlets    (3) extended TV news programs    (4) public debates (but not the thirty­second TV summaries of the debates)   


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