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Animal Products

by: Meagan Samele

Animal Products APSC 1454

Meagan Samele
Virginia Tech
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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture regarding animal products and the slaughter process.
Intro to Animal and Poultry Science
Dr. Wood
Class Notes
animal, Animal Science




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan Samele on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSC 1454 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Wood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 3, 4, and 8    Meat and Egg Products  ● Carcass­ what’s left after removal of covering, feet, viscera (organs), head, tail, and  blood  ● Meat­ Edible parts of an animal­muscle, fat, organs (skin), connective tissue  ● Muscle Meat­ Voluntary muscle   ● Variety Meat­ Heart, liver, tongue, testicles, gizzard, brain    Why Consume meat?  ● High quality protein  ○ Highly digestible (96­99%)  ○ High biological availability  ○ Amino acid profile fits human needs  ● Vitamins  ○ Riboflavin, Niacin, Thiamin, B6, B12, A, D, E, K  ● Minerals  ○ Iron, zinc, Selenium, Phosphorus  ● Taste  ○ Umami    Red Meat:  ● High myoglobin (oxymyoglobin) content  ● Species:  ○ Cattle­beef and veal  ○ Sheep­lamb and mutton  ○ Swine­pork  ○ Goat­Chevon, cabrito, mutton    Poultry:  ● Domestically raised birds  ● Lower in myoglobin  ○ Dark meat vs white meat  ● Chicken, turkey, goose, duck, ratites    Seafood:  ● Fish  ○ Freshwater and saltwater  ● Shellfish  ○ Mussles  ● Roe  ● Echinoderms  ○ Sea cucumber  “Other Meats”  ● Game  ○ Reptiles, birds, mammals  ● Bison  ● Rabbit  ● Camels    VT Meat Center:  ● Located in FST BLDG  ● Inspected food production facility  ○ Closed toed shoes  ○ Hair pulled back    The Slaughter Process  ● Antemortem inspection  ○ Ensure safety and wholesomeness  ○ Humane handling of animals  ● Stunning/immobilization  ○ Goal is to render animal insensitive to pain  ○ Electric­swine, poultry  ○ Captive bolt­beef, sheep, goat  ○ CO2­Swine, poultry    Steps in the slaughter Process (Step 1)  ● Exsanguination  ○ Rapid removal of blood  ○ Beef, swine: severe carotid artery    ○ Sheep, poultry:severe jugular vein   ● Removal of some skeletal parts  ○ head ­inspected  ○ Lower legs, tail­reduce contamination    Steps in the slaughter Process (Step 2)  ● Removal of covering  ○ Skinning:beef, sheep, goats  ○ Scalding: swine (de­haired), poultry (de­feathered)  ● Evisceration  ○ Removal of internal organs  ○ Save edible parts  ○ Reduce contamination  ○ Facilitates cooling (before 40 degrees)      Steps in the slaughter Process (Step 3)  ● Trimming  ● Washing  ● Splitting (beef, swine)  ● Post­mortem inspection  ● Cooling and aging  ○ Proteolytic enzymes break down muscle­improved tenderness  ○ Pork­12­24 hours  ○ Beef­7­14 days, up to 28 days     Inspection vs. Grading    Inspection  Grading  Mandatory for commerce (few exceptions)  Not mandatory  Insures safety and wholesomeness and  Predicts eating or product quality  humane handling of animals  Paid for by taxpayers  Paid for by the packer  State or federal employee  Personnel are government employees    Many companies use their own quality  designations    Inspection  ● Components  ○ Antemortem inspections  ○ Postmortem inspections  ○ Product inspection  ○ Testing: antibiotics, foreign substances, added water  ● FSIS (Food Safety Inspection Service)  ○ Mission to ensure that meat, poultry, and egg products are safe and properly  marked, labeled, and packaged  ● HACCP  ○ Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points  ○ Developed by NASA  ○ Self­evaluation  ■ Conduct hazard analysis  ■ Determine critical control points  ■ Establish critical limits  ■ Establish monitoring procedures  ■ Establish corrective actions  ■ Establish verification procedures  ■ Record­keeping and documentation   ○ Not required but everyone has one  ● Market Classes and Grades  ○ The purpose of sorting animals by classes and grades is to allow buyers and  sellers to communicate without being face to face  ● Market grades  ○ Created to predict palatability and cutability    ○ Feeder grades predict slaughter grades  ○ Slaughter grades predicts carcass quality   ○ Carcass quality predicts consumer satisfaction  ● Quality and Yield grades  ○ Quality grades are designed to predict palatability (taste)  ○ Yield grades measure amount of fat, lean, and bone in the carcass (how much  there is)  ● Quality Grades:  ○ Quality grade attempts to predict  ■ Tenderness   ■ Juiciness  ■ Flavor   ○ Quality grade is determined by  ■ Age   ■ Marbling  ● Meat Quality Grades  ○ Beef  ■ Prime  ■ Choice  ■ Select  ■ Standard  ○ Lamb  ■ Prime  ■ Choice  ■ Good  ■ Utility  ○ Pork  ■ Acceptable   ■ Unacceptable  ● Yield Grade  ○ Backfat is the primary determinant  ○ Yield grade predicts the amount of muscle relative to the size of the animal  ○ Don’t confuse yield grade (cutability) with yield (dressing percent)  ○ Yield grades are numerical (more of a predictor) (2 has meat and fat)  ■ Cattle and Lambs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5  ■ Hogs: 1, 2, 3, 4  ● Poultry Classes and Grades  ○ Grades are for quality only  ○ Live  ■ U.S. A, B, C for each class  ○ Carcass  ■ U.S. A, B, C,  no grade  ● Egg Grades:Quality Only  ○ Grades are based on   ■ Exterior factors (shell)  ■ Interior Factors  ○ Grades: AA (freshest Egg), A, B, Dirty, Check  ■ Apply to domestic chickens only  ● Animal Processing:  ○ Live animal  ○ Chilled Carcass  ○ Wholesale Cuts  ○ Retail cuts  ○ Dressing Percentage  ■ (Chilled carcass wt/live wt)*100  ■ Poultry=80%  ● Hog Processing  ○ Live animal  ○ Chilled carcass  ○ Wholesale cuts  ○ Boneless closely trimmed retail cuts  ● Edible By­products  ○ Variety Meats­edible organs  ○ Edible fats­lard, tallow  ○ Bones: Soups, broths  ○ Blood: Sausage  ○ Intestines: Sausage casings  ○ Gelatin: confectionary, ice cream, jellies  ○ Rennin: cheese  ● Inedible By­Products:  ○ Hide/skin/hair  ○ Bone  ○ Digestive Tract  ○ Blood  ○ Endocrine Glands  ○ Biomedical research           


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