Bio 3 Week 2 notes
Bio 3 Week 2 notes Biology 1130
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Nord on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1130 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Farnsley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology III in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Biology 3 Farnsley Week 8/29 9/2 Chapter 7; Energy and Metabolism Notes 1. Characteristics of life a. All organisms are made up of cells b. Organisms grow and develop c. All organisms have a regulated metabolism i. Metabolisms turn digestive material into energy to use for later ii. Plants obviously use the sunlight, and photosynthesis to convert sunlight into energy 2. Energy conversion a. To turn the glucose into energy, organisms participate in cellular respiration i. The glucose gets broken down and is then ATP. ATP is what is then used as energy to do work within the cell b. Farnsley’s example i. Think about it like exchanging a dollar bill into quarters so that you can use the quarters for a parking meter. 3. Energy a. The capacity to do work. Or a change in state/motion b. either expressed in kilojoules (kJ) or heat energy/kilocalories (kcal) i. 1 kcal = 4.184 kj c. 1 kcal=4.184 kj d. There are a 6 forms of energy (There’s a slide in the power point that has examples of each one) i. Mechanical ii. Thermal iii. Chemical iv. Nuclear v. Electromagnetic vi. Electrical 4. Potential & Kinetic energy a. potential energy i. stored energy that can be used later 1. Farnsley’s example: Drawing a bow back prepping the arrow to be launched b. kinetic i. moving in a direction, work being done 1. Farnsley’s example: The arrow actually launching and going in the aimed direction c. The power point has got a lot more examples i. Slides 5,6,7 all have examples 5. Energy conversion in organisms a. Chemical energy is considered potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds i. An example would be food being digested and turned into ATP that the body uses for muscles 1. Look at slide 8 (Labeled Energy conversion in organisms) 6. Laws of thermodynamics a. Thermodynamics is the study and energy and its transformation. b. Everything in the universe is one of three systems i. Open 1. freely exchanging matter and energy with surroundings a. A bowl of soup b. Humans are considered an open system ii. Closed system 1. only exchanges energy a. putting a lid on a boiling pot of water iii. Isolated system 1. no energy or matter is being exchanged a. a thermos of coffee st b. universe is an isolated system c. 1 Law of Thermodynamics i. Energy cannot be created or destroyed ii. BUT it can be transformed and transferred nd d. 2 law of Thermodynamics i. When energy is converted from one form to another, most of it is usable energy. The rest is converted into heat energy that is taken into the surrounding ii. it’s difficult to turn heat energy into usable energy 1. as the bear runs, it can’t really get it back to use it later (very difficult to do that) iii. 10% of energy is transferred to the next trophic level 7. Entropy a. the measure of energy disorder i. “disorganized” energy is at high entropy ii. “organized” energy is at low entropy b. entropy is continually increasing in the isolated system that we know as earth 8. systems are more organized at low temps (mostly) a. as the system is heated, the entropy increases b. Solid (high order/low entropy) Liquid Gas (Low order/ high entropy) 9. Metabolism a. the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life b. There are two types of metabolism i. Anabolism; building complex molecules out of smaller ones 1. this requires energy ii. Catabolism; breaking large molecules into smaller ones 1. releases energy 10. Enthalpy a. Total potential energy in a system b. Essentially equivalent to the total bond energy 11. Entropy & enthalpy are related by free energy a. Gibbs free energy (G); available energy used for work i. Temperature can play a role in affecting free energy b. Entropy + Free energy (G) = Enthalpy c. As entropy INCREASES than free energy (G) DECREASES and vice versa 12. Exergonic a. An output of energy that would be a catabonic reaction i. Example; the body digesting food b. If free energy (G) is negative there is less energy c. This is an increase in entropy 13. Endergonic a. Some kind of input of energy which requires energy b. This is an anabolic reaction i. Example; plants doing photosynthesis c. A gain of free energy d. If free energy (G) is positive than there is a decreases in entropy 14. Diffusion a. An exergonic process b. Going from a high concentration to a low concentration i. Example; the smell of thanksgiving food radiating through the house. c. Concentration gradient i. This is an increase in entropy ii. Going from a high concentration to a lower concentration iii. This is a form of potential energy 15. Energonic reactions can not be done by itself a. It must be paired with an exergonic reaction. b. By doing this, the energy goes from ATP to ADP 16. Adenosine Triphosphate a. ATP is a nucleotide that is made of 3 highly negative charges that are close together b. The 2 and 3 bond are the closest to each other c. Once the bonds are broken, the ATP is turned ADP i. Adenosine Diphospate d. ATP is like a renewable resource for the body 17. Energy is transferred through electrons a. This process is done through redox reactions i. One substance is being oxidized 1. While donating an electron ii. The other is being reduced 1. accepts the electron b. Two ways to remember how redox reactions work i. LEO goes GIR ii. OIL RIG (remember this from gen 5hem..) 18. Enzymes a. A biological catalysts to speed chemical reactions without being consumed b. Example; Catalase i. Protects cells ii. Has the highest known catalytic rate c. Enzymes have certain conditions they have to live in i. Temperature and pH must be the perfect condition to stay stable ii. This is why most people who are ill can’t keep food down. The enzymes in the stomach are unstable and they can’t do their job 19. Activation energy a. the energy required to break existing bonds & begin a reaction b. enzymes low activation energy since they act like catalysts 20. Enzyme substrate complex a. Reactions without an enzyme depends on random collisions among reactants b. The unstable reaction must be paired with substrate to complete the reaction. i. once complete, the substrate becomes the product and leaves 21. Active sites a. This is where the substrate binds to the enzyme b. This binding causes the enzyme to change shape i. Otherwise known as an induced fit c. Most active sites and substrates are closely related so enzymes have very specific active sites 22. Feedback inhibition a. formation of a product can inhibit a reaction sequence i. this happens when the enzyme has made enough product and must stop b. allosteric cite; a regulating site that can influence the active site on the enzyme to change shape c. Two types of inhibitors i. Competitive 1. Beats the substrate to the active site and takes its place. Which stops the substrate from forming on the active site ii. Noncompetitive 1. The inhibitor binds to the allosteric cite causing the active site to change shape. So, when to substrate makes it to the active site, it cannot bind properly to the enzyme d. Example; penicillin Chapter 8 1. Autotrophs make their own food 2. Heterotrophs eat food that someone else made a. Humans b. Rabbits 3. Most of what is talked about in the chapter will be exergonic reactions 4. Cellular respiration is how nutrients get turned into ATP. a. This process can either be aerobic (requiring oxygen) or anaerobic b. DO NOT get this mixed up with organismal respiration 5. Many process in the body require ATP a. Moving and creating chromosomes b. Cell division c. Turning enzymes on & off d. Contractions of the muscles and skeletal system e. Making proteins and DNA replication 6. C H6O 12 6O 6C2 + 6H O 2 energ2 a. Hopefully that equation is déjà vu for you cause she definitely refers back to it A LOT b. This is overall aerobic respiration reaction c. This is also how the body turns food into glucose d. This reaction is a redox reaction i. C 6 12 i6 oxidized and 6O is 2eing reduced 7. Glucose then is metabolized into ATP a. Glucose has to be turned be broken down into smaller molecules (ATP) because it’s too much energy for cells to handle b. If the glucose isn’t broken down small enough than the glucose is turned into heat energy (which is unusable) & would overheat the cells i. Think of it like trying to give a whole apple to a baby (it won’t work). So it’s gotta be broken down into smaller bits and turned into applesauce for them to eat it.
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