Survey to Chemistry 1: Chapter 1
Survey to Chemistry 1: Chapter 1 Ch 1043
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Taflinger on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ch 1043 at Mississippi State University taught by Laura Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Survey to Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 1: Chemistry Keyterms ● Science: Primary means by which we obtain new knowledge ● Chemistry: Area of knowledge that deals with the behavior of science ● Technology: application of knowledge for practical purposes ● Alchemy: a primitive form of chemistry that flourished in Europe from about 500 to 1500 c.e. ● Green chemistry: uses materials and processes that are intended to prevent or reduce pollution at its source ● Sustainable Chemistry: Chemistry designed to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs for future generations. ● Scientific laws: Large amounts of scientific data are often summarized in brief verbal or mathematical ● Theory: represents the best current explanation for a phenomenon, but it is always tentative. ● Variable: Something that can change over the course of an experiment ● RiskBenefit analysis: involves the estimation of a desirability quotient Benefits DQ= Risks ● Applied research: work oriented toward the solution of a particular problem in an industry or the environment ○ Carries out mainly by industries seeking to gain a competitive by developing a novel, better, or more salable product. ● Basic research: the search for knowledge for its own sake ○ Conducted mainly at universities and research institutes, support coming from federal and state governments and foundation ● Matter: the stuff that makes up all material things, anything that occupies space and has mass ● Mass: a measure of the quantity of matter that an object contains ● Physical Property: a substance is a characteristic or behavior that can be observed or measured without generating new types of matter ● Chemical Property: describes how a substance reacts with other types of matter ● Physical Change: involves an alteration in the physical appearance of matter without changing its chemical identity or composition. ● Chemical change: involves a change in the chemical identity of matter into other substances that are chemically different. ● Solid: object maintains its shape and volume regardless of its location ● Liquid: occupies a definite volume but assumes the shape of the portion of a container that it occupies ● Gas: maintains neither shape nor volume, it expands to fill completely whatever it occupies. ● Substances: defined as having a definite, or fixed, composition that does not vary from one sample to another ● Element: one of the fundamental substances from which all material things are constructed. ● Compound: a substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio. ● Atom: the smallest characteristic part of an element ● SI Units: a modernized version of the metric system ● Energy: ○ Required to make something happen that wouldn’t by itself ○ Energy is the ability to change matter, either, physically or chemically ● Heat: energy on the move, the energy that flows from a warmer object to a cooler one ● Temperature: ○ A measure of how hot or cold an object is ○ SI Unit kelvin ● Density: a substance is the quantity of mass per unit of volume Mass sound Density = Volume Solid ● Kinetic molecular theory: Proposes that a liquid is composed of tiny particles called molecules ● Scientific Data Must Be Reproducible ○ The data reported by a scientist must also be observable by other scientists ● Scientific Hypotheses Are Testable ○ Theories organize scientific knowledge and are also useful for their predictive value. ● Scientific Models are explanatory ○ Scientists often use models to help explain complicated phenomena SI Units Mass Kilogram Length meter Energy Joule Law of mass Conversation ● It was developed ● It is subject to experimentation and revision ● It predicts future observations Modern atomic theory ● It is supported by data ● It is currently accepted as the most plausible explanation for the law of mass conversation ● It is subject to experimentation and revision
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