Survey to Chemistry: Chapter 2
Survey to Chemistry: Chapter 2 Ch 1043
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Taflinger on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ch 1043 at Mississippi State University taught by Laura Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Survey to Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 2: Atoms Keyterms Important Scientist ● Law of Conservation of Mass ○ Matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change ○ Cannot create materials from nothing, only by changing the way atoms are combined ● Law of Definite Proportions ○ A compound always contains the same elements in certain definite proportions and in no others ○ All samples of water will have 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen ○ The ratio of atoms yields a constant 2:1 volume ration ● Law of Multiple Proportions ○ Stated that elements might combine in more than one set of proportions, with each set corresponding to a different compound ● Molecule ○ Combined of two or more atoms ○ When two or more atoms of the same element combine, a homogeneous compound is formed ○ When two or more atoms of different elements combine, a heterogenous compound is farmed ● Atoms ○ The basic building blocks of matter and control the behavior of all matter ● Elements: Composed of only one kind of atom ● Compounds: made up of 2 or more kinds of atoms chemically combined in definite proportions ● Isotopes: classified the elements with grouping of similar elements together and organizing by increasing atomic mass Elements ● Air ● Water ● Earth ● Fire ● Levcippus’ idea ○ Atomos (“cannot be cut”) ○ Modern name atom ( tiny, discrete particular) ● Aristotles’ idea ○ Matter was continuous rather than discrete ○ Seemed more logical and reasonable for 2000 years ● Lavoisier ○ First to weigh all substances present before and after the reaction ○ Found that matter was conserved ○ Consider the father of modern chemistry ● Dmitri Mendeleev ○ Linked the atomic mass of elements to chemical properties and created periodic law and thus the first form of the periodic table ○ Classified the elements with grouping of similar elements together and organizing by increasing atomic mass ● Boyles’ contribution to modern chemistry ○ Proposed that element were made up of various types and sizes of “ corpuscles” ○ Stated that is a substance could be broken down into simpler substances, when it was not an element ● Dalton’s atomic theory of matter ○ Assumes that matter is made up of small unit particles that cannot be futher subdivided and still be the same kind of matter ● Main points of atomic theory ○ Atoms of a given element are alike ○ A chemical reaction involves a rearrangement of atoms ○ All matter is composed of atoms ○ Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in fixed proportions ● Modern periodic law states that properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic number ○ It is based on the atomic number ○ It relates the position of an element in the periodic table with its electron configuration ○ It accounts for isotopes and grouping of chemically dissimilar elements in mendeleev’s table ● Areas of the periodic table ○ Periods: any horizontal row ○ Transition metals: Groups 312 (“B” group element) ○ Main groups: 12 and 1318 (“A” group element) ○ Nonmetallic elements: fall on the righthand side ○ Group: Vertical Column Avogadro’s number 6.022 x 10^23 [ Carbon 12 isotope is 12g per mole]
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