Survey to Chemistry 1: Chapter 3
Survey to Chemistry 1: Chapter 3 Ch 1043
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Taflinger on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ch 1043 at Mississippi State University taught by Laura Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Survey to Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 3: Atomic Structure Keyterms ● Electrolysis: chemical reactions caused by electricity ● Electrolyte: Compound that conducts electricity when melted or dissolved in water ● Electrodes: Carbon rods or metal strips inserted into a molten compound or a solution to carry the electric current ● Anode: The electrode that bears a positive charge ● Cathode: Negatively charged electrode ● Ion: an atom or a group of atoms bonded together that has an electric charge ● Anion: an ion with a negative charge ● Cation: A positively charged ion ● Cathode Ray: a beam of current produces a green fluorescence ● Electrons: negatively charged units in atoms ● Electromagnetic radiation: energy with electric and magnetic components ● Radioactivity: spontaneous emission of radiation from an atomic mass ● Alpha particle: mass four times that of a hydrogen atom and a charge twice the magnitude of, but opposite in sign, to that of an electron ● Beta particle: an electron, although it has much more energy than an electron in an atom ● Gamma rays: A form of electromagnetic radiation, much like the xrays used in medical work but even more energetic and more penetrating ● Nucleus: all the positive charge and nearly all the mass of an atom are concentrated at the center of the atom in a tiny core ● Proton: has a charge equal in magnitude to that of the electron and has nearly the same mass as hydrogen atom ● Neutron: particle with about the same mass as a proton but wiht no electrical charge. ● Isotopes: having the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Symbols for Isotopes Z is the nuclear charge, A is the mass number ● Nucleons: two main nuclear particles, protons, and neutrons ● Quantum: a tiny unit a energy whose value depends on the frequency of the radiation ● Energy level: a specified energy value for an electron ● Ground state: atoms with their electrons thus situated ● Excited state: electron jumps from the lowest possible level to a higher ● Orbitals: variously shaped volumes of space ● Subshell (sublevel): orbitals in the same shell that have the same letter designation ● The Modern Periodic Table has horizontal rows and vertical columns ○ Each vertical column is a group or family. Element in a group have similar properties ○ A horizontal row of the periodic table is called a period. The properties of elements change in a recurring manner across a period ● In the U.S, the groups are often indicated by a numeral followed the letter A or B. ○ An element in a A Group is a Maingroup element ○ An element in a B Group is a Transition element ● Valence Electron ○ A electron in the outermost shell of an atom ● Alkali metals ○ Has one valence electron; very reactive metals n s1 ○ React vigorously with water, producing hydrogen gas ○ Group 1A hydrogen ● Alkaline earth metals ○ Have the cuter electron configuration 2 n s ○ Fairly soft and moderately reactive with water ○ Beryllium is the odd member ○ Group 2A ● Halogens ○ Seven valence electrons with the configuration ns n p 5 ○ React vigorously with alkali metals to form crystalline solids ○ Group 7A ● Noble gases ○ Have a complete set of valence electrons and therefore undergo few, if any, chemical reaction ● Metals ○ Has a characteristic luster (shininess) and generally is a good conductor of heat and electricity ○ Solid at room temperature ○ Malleable (can be hammered into thin sheets), Ductile (can be drawn into wires) ● Nonmetals ○ Lacks metallic ○ Several are gases; others are solid ○ Bromine is the only nonmetal that is liquid at room temperature ● Semimetals/metalloids ○ Have intermediate properties that may resemble those of both metals and nonmetals. Scientists knowledge of the atom? Michael Faraday developed electrolysis James Chadwick discovered the neutron Ernest Rutherford proposed the nuclear theory of the atom J.J. Thompson discovered the electron and calculated the masstocharge ratio of the electron William Crookes developed the cathode ray tube Eugen Goldstein discovered the proton
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