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SCI 1101 CH2 Outline

by: nako.nako.nako

SCI 1101 CH2 Outline SCI 1101

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Completed CH 2 Outline - Original blank spaces that were in Prof. Abikoye's ppt are now filled in & written with LIGHT RED fonts. - Red font = materials that Prof. Abikoye emphasized and likely t...
Science, Society & Environ I
Professor Kay Abikoye
Class Notes
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Lecture  Outlines Chapter  2 Earth’s  Physical  Systems: Matter,  Energy,  and  Geology Withgott/Laposata Fifth  Edition This  lecture  will  help  you  understand: § Plate  tectonics  and  the  rock  cycle § Geologic  hazards  and  ways  to  mitigate  them Central  Case  Study:  The  Tohoku  Earthquake § Earthquake  on  the  Japanese  island  of  Honshu   (2001)  caused  a  massive  tsunami § The  waves  overtopped  the  sea  walls,  causing   flooding  up  to  9.6  km  inland § The  tsunami  knocked  out  power  to  the  Fukushima   Daiichi  nuclear  power  plant,  causing  the  fuel  to  melt   and  the  release  of  radioactive  material § Many  countries  are  now  questioning  the  safety  of   nuclear  power ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Geology:  The  Physical  Basis  for  Environmental   Science § Physical  processes  at  and  below  the  Earth: § Shape  the  landscape § Lay  the  foundation  for  environmental  systems  and  life § Provide  raw  materials  for  industry  such  as  iron,   copper,  and  steel § Provide  energy  from  fossil  fuels  and  geothermal   sources § Geology = the  study  of  Earth’s  physical  features,   processes,  and  history § A  human  lifetime  is  just  the  blink  of  an  eye  in  geologic   time Earth  consists  of  layers § Core = solid  iron  in  the  center § Molten  iron  in  the  outer  core § Mantle = less  dense,  elastic  rock § Asthenosphere  = very  soft  or  melted  rock § Area  of  geothermal  energy § Crust = the  thin,  brittle,  low-­density  layer  of  rock § Lithosphere = the  uppermost  mantle  and  the  crust The  Geologic  Record Right-­click/Select  Play ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Plate  tectonics  shapes  Earth’s  geography § Plate  tectonics = movement  of  lithospheric  plates § Heat  from  Earth’s  inner  layers  drives  convection   currents § Pushes  the  mantle’s  soft  rock  up  (as  it  warms)  and   down  (as  it  cools)  like  a  conveyor  belt § The  lithosphere  is  dragged  along  with  the  mantle § Continents  have  combined,  separated,  and   recombined  over  millions  of  years § Pangaea  팬지아 = all  landmasses  were  joined  into   this  supercontinent  225  million  years  ago ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. There  are  three  types  of  plate  boundaries § Divergent  plate  boundaries § Magma  rises  to  the  surface   § Pushes  plates  apart § Creates  new  crust § Has  volcanoes  and  hydrothermal  vents § Transform  plate  boundaries § Two  plates  meet,  slipping  and  grinding § Friction  spawns  earthquakes  along  strike-­slip  faults § Convergent  plate  boundaries = where  plates   collide ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. There  are  three  types  of  plate  boundaries § Convergent  plate  boundaries = where  plates   collide § Subduction = process  in  which  the  oceanic  plate   slides  beneath continental  crust  (e.g.,  the  Cascades,   Andes  Mountains) § Magma  erupts  through  the  surface  in  volcanoes § Continental  collision = occurs  when  2  plates  of   continental  crust  collide § Built  the  Himalaya  and  Appalachian  Mountains ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. The  rock  cycle  alters  rock § Rock = any  solid  aggregation  of  minerals § Mineral = any  element  or  inorganic  compound § Has  a  crystal  structure,  specific  chemical  composition,  and   distinct  physical  properties § Rocks  help  determine  solid  characteristics,  w hich   influences  the  region’s  plants  community § Understanding  the  rock  cycle  helps  us  appreciate  the   formation  and  conservation  of  soils,  minerals,  fossil   fuels,  and  other  natural  resources § Rock  cycle  = the  heating,  melting,  cooling,  breaking,   and  reassembling  of  rocks  and  minerals. Will  be  able  to  fill  in   this  chart ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Igneous  rock § Magma = molten,  liquid  rock § Lava = magma  released  from  the  lithosphere § Igneous  rock  = forms  when  magma  cools § Intrusive  igneous  rock  = magma  that  cools  slowly   below  Earth’s  surface  (e.g.,  granite) § Extrusive  igneous  rock  = magma  ejected  from  a   volcano  (e.g.,  basalt) Sedimentary  rock § Sediments = rock  particles  blown  by  wind  or   washed  away  by  water § Sedimentary  rock = formed  when  sediments  are   compacted  or  cemented  (dissolved  minerals   crystallize  and  blind  together) § Ex)  Sandstone,  limestone,  shale § Lithification = formation  of  rock  (and  fossils)  through                         and  compaction  and  cementation Know  how  they  are  formed Metamorphic  rock § Metamorphic  rock = formed  when  great  heat  or   pressure  on  a  rock  changes  its  form § High  temperature  reshapes  crystals,  changing  rock’s   appearance  and  physical  properties § Marble = heated  and  pressurized  limestone   § Slate = heated  and  pressurized  shale   ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Geologic  and  Natural  Hazards § Some  consequences  of  plate  tectonics  are   hazardous § Plate  boundaries  closely  match  the  circum-­Pacific   belt  or  “ring  of  fire”: § An  arc  of  subduction  zones  and  fault  systems § Has  90%  of  earthquakes  and  50%  of  volcanoes ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Earthquakes  result  from  movement  at  plate   boundaries  and  faults § Earthquake = a  release  of  energy  (pressure)  along   plate  boundaries  and  faults § Can  do  tremendous  damage  to  life  and  property § Buildings  can  be  built  or  retrofitted  to  decrease   damage § Buildings  are  designed  to  be  more  flexible § Expensive—buildings  in  many  poorer  nations  do  not   have  such  protections Volcanoes  arise  from  rifts,  subduction  zones,   or  hotspots § Volcano =   formed  when  molten  rock,  hot  gas,  or   ash  erupts  through  Earth’s  surface,  cooling  and   creating  a  mt. § Hotspots  form  over  areas  of  lava  rising  from  the   mantle § Lava  can  flow  slowly  or  erupt  suddenly § Pyroclastic  flow:  fast-­moving  cloud  of  gas,  ash,  and   rock   § Buried  Pompeii  in  A.D.  79 Volcanoes  arise  from  rifts,  subduction  zones,   or  hotspots § Volcanic  eruptions  exert  environmental  impacts:  ash   blocks  sunlight  and  sulfur  emissions  lead  to  sulfuric  acid,   blocking  radiation  and  cooling  the  atmosphere § Large  eruptions  can  decrease  temperatures  worldwide § Mount  Tambora’e sruption  caused  the  1816  “year  without   a  summer” § Yellowstone  National  Park  is  an  ancient  supervolcano § Past  eruptions  were  so  massive  they  covered  much  of   North  America  in  ash § The  region  is  still  geothermally active Landslides  are  a  form  of  mass  wasting § Landslide = a  severe  sudden  mass  wasting § Large  amounts  of  rock  or  soil  collapse  and  flow   downhill § Mass  wasting = the  downslope  movement  of  soil   and  rock  due  to  gravity § Rains  saturate  soils  and  trigger  mudslides   § Erodes  unstable  hillsides  and  damages  property § Caused  by  humans  when  soil  is  loosened  or  exposed § Can  cause  massive  damage-­mudslide  after   Hurricane  Mitch  in  1998  killed  over  11000  ppl Tsunamis  can  follow  earthquakes,  volcanoes,   or  landslides   § Tsunami = surge  of  seawater  caused  when  huge   volumes  of  water  are  displaced  by  earthquakes,   volcanoes,  or  landslides § Damage  can  be  widespread,  across  often  distant   coastlines § Coral  reefs,  coastal  forests,  and  wetlands  can  be   damaged § Saltwater  contamination  makes  it  hard  to  restore  them § Agencies  and  nations  have  increased  efforts  to  give   residents  advance  warning  of  approaching  tsunamis § Preserving  coral  reefs  and  mangrove  forests  decreases   the  wave  energy  of  tsunamis We  can  worsen  or  mitigate  the  impacts  of   natural  hazards § We  face  and  affect  other  natural  hazards:  floods,  coastal   erosion,  wildfire,  tornadoes,  and  hurricanes § Overpopulation:  people  must  live  in  susceptive  areas § We  choose  to  live  in  attractive  but  vulnerable  areas   (beaches,  mt) § Engineered  landscapes  increase  frequency  or  severity   of  hazards  (damming  rivers,  suppressing  fire  mining) § Changing  climate  through  greenhouse  gases  changes   rainfall  patterns  and  increases  drought,  fire,  flooding  and   storms. We  can  worsen  or  mitigate  the  impacts  of   natural  hazards § We  can  decrease  impacts  of  hazards  through  tech,   engineering,  and  policy,  informed  by  geology  and   ecology   § Build  earthquake-­resistant  structures § Design  early  warning  systems  (tsunamis,  volcanoes) § Preserve  reefs  and  shorelines  (tsunamis,  volcanoes) § Better  forestry,  agriculture,  mining  (mass  wasting) § Regulations,  building  codes  insurances  incentives  that   discourage  people  from  developing  in  vulnerable  areas § People  can  mitigate  climate  change  which  may  reduce   natural  hazards. Conclusion § Physical  processes  of  geology  (e.g.,  plate  tectonics,   the  rock  cycle)  are  centrally  important § They  shape  terrain  and  form  the  foundation  of  living   system § Geologic  processes  can  threaten  us § Processes  in  one  location  can  initiate  events  whose   impacts  go  far  beyond  that  one  location


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