SCI 1101 CH2 Outline
SCI 1101 CH2 Outline SCI 1101
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Lecture Outlines Chapter 2 Earth’s Physical Systems: Matter, Energy, and Geology Withgott/Laposata Fifth Edition This lecture will help you understand: § Plate tectonics and the rock cycle § Geologic hazards and ways to mitigate them Central Case Study: The Tohoku Earthquake § Earthquake on the Japanese island of Honshu (2001) caused a massive tsunami § The waves overtopped the sea walls, causing flooding up to 9.6 km inland § The tsunami knocked out power to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, causing the fuel to melt and the release of radioactive material § Many countries are now questioning the safety of nuclear power © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Geology: The Physical Basis for Environmental Science § Physical processes at and below the Earth: § Shape the landscape § Lay the foundation for environmental systems and life § Provide raw materials for industry such as iron, copper, and steel § Provide energy from fossil fuels and geothermal sources § Geology = the study of Earth’s physical features, processes, and history § A human lifetime is just the blink of an eye in geologic time Earth consists of layers § Core = solid iron in the center § Molten iron in the outer core § Mantle = less dense, elastic rock § Asthenosphere = very soft or melted rock § Area of geothermal energy § Crust = the thin, brittle, low-density layer of rock § Lithosphere = the uppermost mantle and the crust The Geologic Record Right-click/Select Play © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Plate tectonics shapes Earth’s geography § Plate tectonics = movement of lithospheric plates § Heat from Earth’s inner layers drives convection currents § Pushes the mantle’s soft rock up (as it warms) and down (as it cools) like a conveyor belt § The lithosphere is dragged along with the mantle § Continents have combined, separated, and recombined over millions of years § Pangaea 팬지아 = all landmasses were joined into this supercontinent 225 million years ago © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. There are three types of plate boundaries § Divergent plate boundaries § Magma rises to the surface § Pushes plates apart § Creates new crust § Has volcanoes and hydrothermal vents § Transform plate boundaries § Two plates meet, slipping and grinding § Friction spawns earthquakes along strike-slip faults § Convergent plate boundaries = where plates collide © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. There are three types of plate boundaries § Convergent plate boundaries = where plates collide § Subduction = process in which the oceanic plate slides beneath continental crust (e.g., the Cascades, Andes Mountains) § Magma erupts through the surface in volcanoes § Continental collision = occurs when 2 plates of continental crust collide § Built the Himalaya and Appalachian Mountains © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The rock cycle alters rock § Rock = any solid aggregation of minerals § Mineral = any element or inorganic compound § Has a crystal structure, specific chemical composition, and distinct physical properties § Rocks help determine solid characteristics, w hich influences the region’s plants community § Understanding the rock cycle helps us appreciate the formation and conservation of soils, minerals, fossil fuels, and other natural resources § Rock cycle = the heating, melting, cooling, breaking, and reassembling of rocks and minerals. Will be able to fill in this chart © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Igneous rock § Magma = molten, liquid rock § Lava = magma released from the lithosphere § Igneous rock = forms when magma cools § Intrusive igneous rock = magma that cools slowly below Earth’s surface (e.g., granite) § Extrusive igneous rock = magma ejected from a volcano (e.g., basalt) Sedimentary rock § Sediments = rock particles blown by wind or washed away by water § Sedimentary rock = formed when sediments are compacted or cemented (dissolved minerals crystallize and blind together) § Ex) Sandstone, limestone, shale § Lithification = formation of rock (and fossils) through and compaction and cementation Know how they are formed Metamorphic rock § Metamorphic rock = formed when great heat or pressure on a rock changes its form § High temperature reshapes crystals, changing rock’s appearance and physical properties § Marble = heated and pressurized limestone § Slate = heated and pressurized shale © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Geologic and Natural Hazards § Some consequences of plate tectonics are hazardous § Plate boundaries closely match the circum-Pacific belt or “ring of fire”: § An arc of subduction zones and fault systems § Has 90% of earthquakes and 50% of volcanoes © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Earthquakes result from movement at plate boundaries and faults § Earthquake = a release of energy (pressure) along plate boundaries and faults § Can do tremendous damage to life and property § Buildings can be built or retrofitted to decrease damage § Buildings are designed to be more flexible § Expensive—buildings in many poorer nations do not have such protections Volcanoes arise from rifts, subduction zones, or hotspots § Volcano = formed when molten rock, hot gas, or ash erupts through Earth’s surface, cooling and creating a mt. § Hotspots form over areas of lava rising from the mantle § Lava can flow slowly or erupt suddenly § Pyroclastic flow: fast-moving cloud of gas, ash, and rock § Buried Pompeii in A.D. 79 Volcanoes arise from rifts, subduction zones, or hotspots § Volcanic eruptions exert environmental impacts: ash blocks sunlight and sulfur emissions lead to sulfuric acid, blocking radiation and cooling the atmosphere § Large eruptions can decrease temperatures worldwide § Mount Tambora’e sruption caused the 1816 “year without a summer” § Yellowstone National Park is an ancient supervolcano § Past eruptions were so massive they covered much of North America in ash § The region is still geothermally active Landslides are a form of mass wasting § Landslide = a severe sudden mass wasting § Large amounts of rock or soil collapse and flow downhill § Mass wasting = the downslope movement of soil and rock due to gravity § Rains saturate soils and trigger mudslides § Erodes unstable hillsides and damages property § Caused by humans when soil is loosened or exposed § Can cause massive damage-mudslide after Hurricane Mitch in 1998 killed over 11000 ppl Tsunamis can follow earthquakes, volcanoes, or landslides § Tsunami = surge of seawater caused when huge volumes of water are displaced by earthquakes, volcanoes, or landslides § Damage can be widespread, across often distant coastlines § Coral reefs, coastal forests, and wetlands can be damaged § Saltwater contamination makes it hard to restore them § Agencies and nations have increased efforts to give residents advance warning of approaching tsunamis § Preserving coral reefs and mangrove forests decreases the wave energy of tsunamis We can worsen or mitigate the impacts of natural hazards § We face and affect other natural hazards: floods, coastal erosion, wildfire, tornadoes, and hurricanes § Overpopulation: people must live in susceptive areas § We choose to live in attractive but vulnerable areas (beaches, mt) § Engineered landscapes increase frequency or severity of hazards (damming rivers, suppressing fire mining) § Changing climate through greenhouse gases changes rainfall patterns and increases drought, fire, flooding and storms. We can worsen or mitigate the impacts of natural hazards § We can decrease impacts of hazards through tech, engineering, and policy, informed by geology and ecology § Build earthquake-resistant structures § Design early warning systems (tsunamis, volcanoes) § Preserve reefs and shorelines (tsunamis, volcanoes) § Better forestry, agriculture, mining (mass wasting) § Regulations, building codes insurances incentives that discourage people from developing in vulnerable areas § People can mitigate climate change which may reduce natural hazards. Conclusion § Physical processes of geology (e.g., plate tectonics, the rock cycle) are centrally important § They shape terrain and form the foundation of living system § Geologic processes can threaten us § Processes in one location can initiate events whose impacts go far beyond that one location
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