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SCI 1101 CH8 Outline

by: nako.nako.nako

SCI 1101 CH8 Outline SCI 1101

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Completed CH 8 Outline - Original blank spaces that were in Prof. Abikoye's ppt are now filled in & written with LIGHT RED fonts. - Red font = materials that Prof. Abikoye emphasized and likely t...
Science, Society & Environ I
Professor Kay Abikoye
Class Notes
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This 52 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCI 1101 at Kennesaw State University taught by Professor Kay Abikoye in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Lecture  Outlines Chapter  8 Human  Population Withgott/Laposata Fifth  Edition ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. This  lecture  will  help  you  understand: § Human  population  growth § Different  viewpoints  on  this  growth § Population,  affluence,  and  technology’s  effects § Demography   § Factors  affecting  population  growth § Population  and  sustainable  development ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Central  Case  Study:  China’s  One-­Child  Policy § In  1970,  China’s  790  million  people  were  exhausting   their  resources  and  faced  starvation  if  growth  continued § The  government  instituted  a  one-­child  policy § The  growth  rate  plummeted § The  policy  is  now  less  strict § The  successful  program  has  had  unintended   consequences § Killing  of  female  infants  and  an  imbalance  in  male  to   female  ratios § Increasing  number  of  elderly  and  fewer  young  people  in   the  workforce ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Our  World  at  Seven  Billion § Populations  continue  to  rise  in  most  countries,   particularly  in  poverty-­stricken  developing  nations. § Growth  in  poorer  nations  leads  to  stresses  on   society,  the  environment,  and  people’s  well-­being § China’s  stringent  policies  have  greatly  slowed   growth  there,  but  other  countries  may  wish  to  slow   their  growth  without  the  measures  used  by  China § India’s  growth  continues  and  if  not  changed  will   surpass  China’s  population It  would  take  30  years,  counting  once  each  second,  to  count   to  a  billion!  It  would  take  210  years  to  count  to  7  billion! ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. The  human  population  is  growing  rapidly § Our  population  grows  by  over  70  million  each  year § It  took  until  1800  to  reach  1  billion § In  1930  (130  years  later)  we  reached  2  billion § We  added  the  most  recent  billion  in  12  years § Growth  rates  vary  from  country  to  country § Some  countries  are  over  3%,  while  other  country’s   populations  are  shrinking § The  current  world  growth  rate  is  1.2% § At  this  rate,  the  human  population  of  the  planet  would   double  in  58.3  years ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Is  population  growth  a  problem? § Better  tech,  sanitation,  medication,  and  increased   food  supply  have  increased  growth § Death  rates  drop,  but  not  birth  rates § Infant  mortality  rate = the  death  rate  in  children;;  has   dropped  dramatically § Population  growth  was  seen  as  good § Support  for  elderly,  a  larger  labor  pool § Thomas  Malthus’s An  Essay  on  the  Principles  of   Population (1798) § Humans  will  outstrip  food  supplies § War,  disease,  starvation  reduce  populations ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Is  population  growth  a  problem? § Neo-­Malthusians:  population  growth  will  increase  faster   than  food  production;;  cause  famine  and  conflict § Paul  Ehrlich’s  Population  Bomb (1968)  predicted  that   civilization  would  end  by  the  end  of  the  20th  century § Intensified  food  production  fed  more  ppl § Cornucopians argue  that  we  will  continue  to  find  new   resources  and  tech  to  support  pp § Environmental  scientists  argue  that  there  are  finite   resources § Land  is  limited,  extinct  species  are  gone  forever § Quality  of  life  will  suffer  with  unchecked  growth § Less  space,  food,  wealth  per  person ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Some  national  governments  now  fear  falling   populations § Policymakers  believe  population  growth  increases   economic,  political,  and  military  strength § But  growth  is  correlated  with  poverty,  not  wealth § Strong,  rich  nations  have  low  growth  rates § Weak,  poor  nations  have  high  growth  rates § Some  nations  offer  incentives  for  more  children § Elderly  need  social  services § 66%  of  European  governments  think  their  birth  rate   is  too  low § 49%  of  non-­European  nations  feel  their  birth  rates  are   too  high Population  is  one  of  several  factors  that  affect   the  environment § The  IPAT  model:    I = P × A × T × S § Total  impact  (I)  on  the  environment  results  from: § Population  (P)  = individuals  need  space  and   resources   § Affluence  (A)  = greater  per  capita  resource  use § Technology  (T)  = increased  exploitation  of  resources,   but  also  pollution  controls  and  renewable  energy § Sensitivity  (S)  = how  sensitive  an  area  is  to  human   pressure  (ex.  arid  land  vs  rainforest) § Further  model  refinements  include  the  effects  of   education,  laws,  and  ethics  on  the  formula Population  is  one  of  several  factors  that  affect   the  environment § Impact  equates  to  pollution  or  resource  consumption § Humans  use  25%  of  Earth’s  net  primary  production § Technology  has  increased  efficiency  and  reduced   our  strain  on  resources,  resulting  in  further  pop   growth § For  example,  increased  agricultural  production § Modern  China’s  increasing  affluence  is  causing: § increased  resource  consumption § farmland  erosion,  depleted  aquifers,  urban  pollution Demography § Demography = the  application  of  population  ecology   to  the  study  of  change  in  human  pop. § All  population  principles  apply  to  humans § Environmental  factors  limit  population  growth § There  is  a  carrying  capacity  for  all  species,  including   humans § Humans  raise  the  environment’s  carrying  capacity   through  tech. § How  many  humans  can  the  world  sustain?     § 1  billion  to  33  billion:  prosperity  to  abject  poverty § Population  growth  can’t  continue  forever   Demography  is  the  study  of  human  population § Demographers study:   § Population  size   § Density  and  distribution § Age  structure § Sex  ratio   § Birth,  death,  immigration,  and  emigration  rates § Population  size § Current  world  population  is  just  over  7  billion ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Population  density  and  distribution § Population  size  alone  does  not  tell  whole  story § People  are  not  distributed  equally  over  the  planet   (clumped  distribution) § Highest  density:  temperate,  subtropical,  tropical   biomes  and  close  to  water § Cities  are  local  high-­density  areas § Lowest  density:  away  from  water,  extreme   environments § Increased  density  impacts  the  environment ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Age  structure § Age  structure  describes  the  relative  numbers  in  each   age  class  within  a  population § Age  structure  diagrams  (population  pyramids)  show   age  structure § Wide  base  denotes  many  young § High  reproduction,  rapid  population  growth § Even  age  distribution:  remains  stable  as  births  keep   pace  with  deaths § Narrow  base  denotes  fewer  young  than  old § Population  will  likely  decline  over  time ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Age  structure § Many  populations  are  getting  older § Median  global  age  today  is  28,  but  it  will  be  38  by   2050 § The  elderly  will  need  care  and  financial  assistance § Taxes  will  increase  for  Social  Security  and  Medicare § But  fewer  dependent  children  may  mean  lower  crime   rates,  and  the  elderly  can  remain  productive Age  structure § China’s  age  structure  is  changing § In  1970,  the  median  age  was  20;;  by  2050  it  will  be  45 § By  2050,  over  300  million  will  be  over  65   § Fewer  people  will  be  working  to  support  social   programs  to  assist  the  elderly ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Sex  ratios § Unequal  sex  ratios  can  impact  population  growth § Human  sex  ratios  at  birth  slightly  favor  males   § For  every  100  females  born,  106  males  are  born § In  China,  120  boys  were  reported  for  100  girls § Culture  values  males  over  females § The  government’s  one-­child  policy   § Females  have  been  selectively  aborted § The  undesirable  social  consequences? § Many  single  Chinese  men § Increased  risk  of  HIV § Teenage  girls  are  kidnapped  and  sold  as  brides ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Population  change  results  from  birth,  death,   immigration,  and  emigration § Whether  a  population  grows,  shrinks,  or  remains   stable  depends  on  rates  of  birth,  death,  and   migration § birth  and  immigration  add  individuals   § death  and  emigration  remove  individuals § Technological  advances     § The  increased  gap  between  birth  and  death  rates   resulted  in  population  expansion Population  change  results  from  birth,  death,   immigration,  and  emigration § Immigration/emigration  have  become  more   important § War,  civil  strife,  and  environmental  degradation   cause  people  to  flee  their  homes § Each  year,  25  million  refugees  escape  poor   environmental  conditions § This  movement  causes  environmental  problems § No  incentives  to  conserve  resources § Overall  global  growth  rate  has  declined  in  recent   years § But  world  population  continues  to  grow ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Many  nations  are  experiencing  the   demographic  transition § In  countries  with  good  sanitation,  health  care,  and   food,  people  live  longer § Life  expectancy = avg.  #  of  years  that  an  individual   is  likely  to  continue  to  live § Has  increased  with  reduced  rates  of  infant  mortality § Demographic  transition = a  model  of  economic   and  cultural  change § Explains  the  declining  death  and  birth  rates  in   industrializing  nations   § Populations  undergo  four  stages Many  nations  are  experiencing  the   demographic  transition § Pre-­industrial  stage = both  birth  and  death  rates   are  high § High  birth  rate  to  compensate  for  high  infant  mortality § Population  growth  is  slow § Transitional  stag= e declining  death  rates  due  to   increased  food  production  and  medical  care § Birth  rates  remain  high  since  people  are  not  used  to   the  low  infant  mortality  rates § Population  grows  quickly Many  nations  are  experiencing  the   demographic  transition § Industrial  stage = birth  rates  fall  as  jobs  provide   opportunities  for  women  outside  the  home  and   children  are  not  needed  in  the  workforce § Difference  between  birth  and  death  rates  shrinks § Population  growth  slows § Post-­industrial  stage = birth  and  death  rates  are   low  and  stable § Population  stabilizes  or  even  shrinks ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Is  the  demographic  transition  a  universal   process? § It  has  occurred  in  Europe,  the  U.S.,  Canada,  Japan,   and  other  nations  over  the  past  200–300  years § But  it  may  or  may  not  apply  to  developing  nations § The  transition  could  fail  in  cultures  that: § Place  greater  value  on  childbirth § Grant  women  fewer  freedoms For  people  to  attain  the  material  standard  of  living  of   North  Americans,  we  would  need  the  natural   resources  of  four  and  a  half  more  Earths Population  and  Society § Many  factors  affect  fertility  in  a  given  society: § Access  to  family  planning   § Rates  of  infant  mortality § Levels  of  women’s  rights § Level  of  affluence § Importance  of  child  labor § Government  support  for  retirees Family  planning  is  a  key  approach    for   controlling  growth § Family  planning = efforts  to  control  the  number  and   spacing  of  children;;  the  greatest  single  factor   slowing  population  growth § Clinics  offer  advice,  information,  and  contraceptives § Birth  control = effort  to  control  the  number  of   children  born  by  reducing  the  frequency  of   pregnancy § Contraception = deliberate  prevention  of  pregnancy   through  a  variety  of  methods § Rates  range  from  less  than  10%  (14  countries  in   Africa)  to  84%  (China) Family  planning  is  a  key  approach    for   controlling  growth § Low  use  of  family  planning  may  have  different   causes § Rural  areas  may  have  limited  availability § Religious  doctrines  or  cultural  influences  may  reject   family  planning § Family  planning  gives  women  control  over  their   reproductive  window = time  frame  where  a   woman  can  become  pregnant § Potential  to  produce  25  children  during  the  window § Family  planning  may  delay  first  reproduction,  space   births,  or  “close”  the  window  when  desired  family  size   is  achieved ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Increasing  affluence  lowers  fertility § Poorer  societies  have  higher  population  growth  rates § Consistent  with  the  demographic  transition  theory § High  fertility  to  ensure  some  children  would  survive   and  be  able  to  contribute  to  farm  labor § More  affluent  societies  can  provide:   § Better  medical  care,  reducing  infant  mortality § Education  for  children  (removing  them  from  the   workforce  and  making  them  an  economic  liability) § Social  security  for  the  elderly § Educational  opportunities  for  women ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Expanding  wealth  can  increase  the   environmental  impact  per  person § Affluent  societies  have  enormous  resource   consumption  and  waste  production § People  use  resources  from  other  areas,  as  well  as   from  their  own § Ecological  footprints  are  huge § People  in  affluent  societies  have  larger  ecological   footprints § One  American  has  as  much  environmental  impact  as   3.8  Chinese  or  8  Indians  or  14  Afghans § Not  only  is  the  world  population  increasing,  but  the   consumption  per  person  is  also  rising Expanding  wealth  can  increase  the   environmental  impact  per  person § Biocapacity = the  amount  of  biologically  productive   land  and  sea  available  to  us § Ecological  deficit  = ecological  footprint  >  biocapacity § Ecological  reserve  = ecological  footprint  <  biocapacity § We  are  running  a  global  ecological  deficit § Humanity’s  global  ecological  footprint  exceeds   biocapacity by  50% § The  richest  20%  of  the  world’s  population  uses  86%   of  the  world’s  resources § Anthropocene   (relating  to  or  denoting  the  current  geological  age,  viewed  as   the  period  during  which  human  activity  has  been  been  the  dominant  influence  on   ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. HIV/AIDS  is  exerting  major  impacts  on  African   populations § The  AIDS  epidemic  is  having  the  greatest  impact   since  the  Black  Death  in  the  14th  century § Of  34  million  infected,  two-­thirds  live  in  sub-­Saharan   Africa;;  3800  die/day § Low  rates  of  contraceptive  use  spread  the  disease § Infant  mortality  is  14  times  that  of  the  developed  world § Life  expectancy  has  dropped  from  60  years  in  the   1990s  to  40–50  years  today § HIV  is  also  well  established  in  the  Caribbean  and  in   Southeast  Asia,  and  it  is  spreading  in  eastern   Europe  and  central  Asia ©  2014  Pearson  Education,  Inc. Demographic  change  has  social  and  economic   repercussions § Demographic  fatigue = occurs  when  governments   face  overwhelming  challenges  related  to  population   growth § With  the  added  stress  of  HIV/AIDS,  governments  are   stretched  beyond  their  capabilities § Problems  grow  worse  and  citizens  lose  faith § Good  news:  HIV  transmission  has  slowed  recently Population  goals  support  sustainable   development § 1994  UN  conference  on  population  and  development § Rejected  top-­down,  command-­and-­control  approaches   that  pushed  contraceptives  and  preset  targets § Urged  education  and  health  care § Urged  addressing  social  needs  (like  poverty,  sexism)   from  the  bottom  up § To  generate  a  high  quality  of  life  for  all  people,   developing  nations  must  slow  population  growth § Developed  nations  must  reduce  resource   consumption Conclusion § The  human  population  is  larger  than  at  any  other  time § Rates  are  decreasing  but  populations  are  still  rising § Most  developed  nations  have  passed  through  the   demographic  transition § Expanding  women’s  rights  slows  population  growth § How  will  the  population  stop  rising?   § The  demographic  transition,  governmental   intervention,  or  disease  and  social  conflict? § Sustainability  requires  a  stabilized  population  to  avoid   destroying  natural  systems  and  leave  a  quality  world


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