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Comm 107 Week 1 Ch. 11&12 Notes

by: Colin Fields

Comm 107 Week 1 Ch. 11&12 Notes Comm107

Colin Fields
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About this Document

Notes on Ch. 11 and 12 Planning a message of a speech what material to include to support the message
Oral Communication: Principles and Practices
Mr. Volker
Class Notes
Communications, Message Development, Speech Planning




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Colin Fields on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm107 at University of Maryland taught by Mr. Volker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Oral Communication: Principles and Practices in Department of Communication at University of Maryland.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Comm 107 Notes Week 1 Ch. 11 Public Speaking: Planning the Message Public communication: a transactional exchange between a speaker and an audience The Listenable Speech 1. Formatted to be easily understood 2. Uses language suitable for the intelligence of the listeners 3. Follows a pattern 4. Includes foreshadowing and transitions 5. Supports statements with credible sources a. Introduction->Thesis Statement->Patterned Body- >Conclusion Preparing a Speech: An Overview 1. Choose a topic 2. Generate a central idea 3. Research the topic 4. Develop central idea into a thesis statement 5. Structure the body of the speech 6. Prepare props as needed 7. Develop an introduction and conclusion that are linked 8. Make sure the intro and conclusion sound like the beginning and the end Parameters of Public Speaking 1. Participants 2. Setting 3. Purpose a. Affect what is spoken about and how it is presented 4. Speech precipitants: speaker and the audience 5. Speech setting: where is speech is given 6. Speech purpose: centered on the speaker’s expected outcome Ethics of Public Speaking 1. Don’t Lie 2. Provide background so the listeners understand the speech 3. Don’t coerce 4. Give credit to sources 5. Show a respect for basic human dignity 6. Plagiarism a. Using material without giving credit to the original producer b. If you didn’t come up with it yourself you have to cite someone 7. Fabrication a. Making up information and passing it off as true Analyzing the Parameters of Speeches 1. Prior to the speech analysis a. Audience analysis: assessing the demographic, psychographic, and rhetorographic characteristics of the audience b. Demographics: Listeners’ characteristics based on their physical descriptions and background i. Age- make sure language is appropriate ii. Gender- Don’t stereotype or be sexist iii. Religion- incorporate examples to create a common bond with the specific group iv. Ethnic background- uses references that put a specific group in a positive light v. Educational background- choose material they can understand vi. Occupation- create common bonds using experiences vii. Racial background- Do not stereotype c. Psychographics: The audience’s attitudes and beliefs i. Attitude- predispositions of listeners ii. Conservative/liberal- try to figure out so you know how they will react to certain hot button issues iii. Political affiliation- usually correspond to ii. and should be treated similarly d. Rhetorographics: Place, Time, and Climate i. Place- affects the tone and topic of speech. Considerations are made for the physical conditions in the room ii. Time- Limits mean the speech must be more condensed, time of day means the audience’s interest may be harder to hold iii. Emotional Climate- the overriding psychological state of the audience e. Topic Selection: Look to your own life and experiences for topics to speak about i. What is the topic? ii. Why is this topic important? iii. What can be said about this topic? iv. Why do you want to talk about this topic? f. Narrowing Topic Selection i. Pick a general topic ii. Narrow based on demographics iii. Narrow based on psychographics iv. Narrow based on rhetorographics g. Language Selection i. Speak at the educational level of the audience ii. Use phases for the audience’s everyday life h. Statement of Central Idea i. The goal of the speech ii. The topic of the speech iii. The method of speech development (body pattern) i. Process of Speech Analysis i. Actively analyze feedback ii. Depart form planned speech if it is failing iii. Add in anecdotes and illustrations to reign in the audience j. Post Speech Analysis i. Q and A session ii. Speaking with individuals after the presentation iii. Simply asking what was good and what needs to be improved Modes of Presentation 1. Impromptu or Ad Lib Mode a. Speaks from experience b. Little to no preparation c. Organizes ideas while communicating i. Ad Lib does not allow organizing ideas d. Natural and Spontaneous e. Same method of developing a speech as other types but with much less time to develop ideas and plan 2. Extemporaneous Mode a. Developing a set of talking points b. More time to prepare c. Backs up ideas with quotes and statistics d. Usually prepared from an outline i. Parallelism- words with similar parts of speech should be used to connect ideas together ii. Coordination- Ideas and topics with similar significance should be labeled similarly iii. Subordination- Major headings should be ordered in a pattern such as concrete to abstract or general to specific iv. Division- Major ideas should be separated and populated with supporting details v. Form- Be consistent with how ideas and points are organized e. Mind Mapping i. Organizing ideas based on visuals 3. Manuscript Mode a. Delivering a written speech word for word i. Use active voice ii. Short sentences iii. Reiteration of key ideas iv. Use imagery so the audience can see what you are saying b. Not very flexible c. Can’t lose place on written sheet d. Not interactive 4. Memorized Mode a. Essentially manuscript mode without the safety net of a written speech b. Very unflavored by good speakers c. High probability or error Comm 107 Notes Week 1 Ch. 12 Public Speaking: Developing the Message Sources of Information 1. Primary source: the source represents the original observations or findings, first hand 2. Secondary source: sources that report on someone else’s original findings or observations, second hand 3. Books a. Need to be wary of out of date information 4. Magazines a. Information is current b. Biased and not so credible 5. Newspaper a. Good record of specific events b. Increasingly harder to find 6. Journals a. Good for reliable information about a specific field 7. Indexes a. Good for finding topics that need to be explored with other sources 8. Wikis a. Edited by anyone b. Reliability very suspect 9. Government Publications a. Wide variety b. Readily available’ 10. Special-Interest Group Publications a. Good for specific topic information b. Interactive 11. Nonprint Media a. Wide variety of information in easily transportable forms 12. Interviews a. Provide information not necessarily available in other forms/sources 13. Computer Searches a. Search further than what first pops up b. Computer base retrieval systems i. Database that pools content from various publications ii. High quality information c. Conducting a database search i. Select a relevant database ii. Search for key terms iii. Examine results to see what is working and what isn’t iv. Narrow results by what is most relevant v. Potentially broaden search to encompass more information vi. Mark the sources you want vii. Save the sources you want viii. CITE YOUR SOURCES d. Set a stopping point i. Based on how thorough the report or speech needs to be and the volume of information to be presented ii. Can always go back if there isn’t enough information e. Recording your research i. Keep a record of where information came from ii. Use footnotes to keep citations in context Supporting Material 1. Should clarify a point being made or offer evidence of a point’s validity a. Simple, unexpected, concrete, credible, emotional, story based 2. Stories a. Helps reach a deeper level of understanding b. More engaging c. Can be hypothetical 3. Specific Instances a. Condensed examples used to clarify or prove a point 4. Exposition a. Gives background information to enhance understanding b. Bridges a gap between the speaker and audience 5. Statistics a. Numerical information arranged as representations, trends, or theories b. Should be taken with a grain of salt c. Statistical Surveying i. Methods for collecting data ii. Random sampling to get accurate information with a probability of error which should be stated d. Proper Interpretation of Data i. Should always be in context as a result be almost always be gotten if enough tests are done e. Currency of Data i. Past studies don’t always translate into what would be currently found f. Reporting the Data i. Do not overload the audience with data ii. Approximate large numbers 6. Analogies a. Comparison of an unfamiliar concept with a familiar one b. Only effective if the listener is familiar with at least one half of the analogy 7. Testimony a. Direct quotations or paraphrasings b. Expert testimony comes from someone reliable and well versed in the matter they are discussing c. Experts can lie Use of the World Wide Web 1. Excessive amount of wrong or irrelevant data 2. .gov, .edu, and .org are the most reliable sources 3. Look at who published the information 4. Look at when the information was published 5. Blogs are very suspect Techniques for Presenting Supporting Material 1. Internal Summaries a. Short restatements of what a supporting material says greatly helps convey its meaning and importance b. Doesn’t replace a transition 2. Forecasting a. A statement that indicates what information is to come b. Foreshadowing 3. Signposting a. Where the speech has been b. Where the speech is c. Where the speech is going 4. Supplementary Aids a. Facilitate understanding not just attention grabbers b. Display information in an appealing way to accentuate its significance c. Visual Aids i. Appeal to sense of sight ii. Should be used sparingly so as to not overwhelm the audience iii. Can be real objects iv. Models v. Photos, pictures, and diagrams vi. Charts vii. Cutaways and cross sections viii. Mockups ix. Flip charts x. Graphics d. Audio Aids i. Convey tone and meaning when quoting or paraphrasing what someone else said e. Audiovisual Aids i. Combination of other two ii. Effective at communicating more meaning 5. Presentation Software a. A variety of visual techniques is good for holding attention and not being monotonous b. Can be overwhelming c. Should assist the presentation not take its place d. Using Presentation Software effectively i. Simplicity is good ii. Should be inserted after the actual speech is made to enhance it iii. No more than 5 words per line and 5 lines per slide iv. Do not write out speech on slides v. Must be readable vi. Should have structure vii. Shouldn’t be distracting viii. Do not put dark things on a dark back ground (same with light) ix. A single slide summarizing main points can be helpful for a conclusion


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