Biology 103, Week 1. Notes
Biology 103, Week 1. Notes 103
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kierra Thompson on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Emily Clark in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Biology & Society in Science at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Week1 Science:What is it and how we do it? Is science the collection of facts? NO Science is a process without a single definition. A method of answering questions based on observations and experiments Science have key characetristics Whats not science o Spiritual, paranoramal etc… not part of the physical universe, not testable Is it Science? Science aims to produce increasingly accurate explanations of how the natural world works, what its components are, and how it got to be this way It focuses on the natural world solve problems Relies on ideas that are testable by carefully designed • experiments or observational studies Tests (experiments) produce data which support or refute the idea. It takes a village Peer Reviewers o Experts in the field that assess whether study was appropriately conducted and interpreted. Science begets more science Researchers adhered to a code How do we do science? Ask a question Read up Construct a hypothesis o A tentative explanation for a scientific observation Perform experiments Analyze data If data support, write a paer, if results don’t support, start over *Nothing is ever proven, but ideas can be supported with more or less *A large body of evidence sort a certain idea - scientific theory How do we design a study? Conclusions from a study are only as good as the study design The birth of a study Observation How do we do science? Go from observation to hypothesis o Experimental group- whats being tested o Control group – experiences no treatment, often receives a placebo *Must have equivalence between groups Now we ask what effect does the independent variable have on the dependent variable o Independent variable- treatment that we change o Dependent variable- response to treatment Best if you have large sample sizes, tightly controlled experimental conditions, and you are directly testing the effect of treatment on a particular response… *Sample size is critical!! Larger sample sizes…. more precise confidence intervals…more reliable results Less chance of obtaining a result just by chance! Conclusions from a study are only as good as the study design. If they are correlated, then OTHER variable could be responsible for the trend o Correlation does not mean causation!!! It just means that a relationship exists between two variables. To determine causation, need randomized clinical trial à controlled medical experiment in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive experimental treatment or placebo o Logistically challenging and ethically questionable…..