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week 2 class notes

by: Kelli Notetaker

week 2 class notes XANTHRO 2AC

Kelli Notetaker

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Introduction to Archaeology
Kent G Lightfoot
Class Notes
Intro to Archaeology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli Notetaker on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to XANTHRO 2AC at University of California Berkeley taught by Kent G Lightfoot in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Anthro 2AC 8/31/2016 Read: Parkman 2011, Fernandez and Parkman 2011        II.  WHY STUDY ARCHAEOLOGY? 2.  Study of Recent History  C.   Study of Contemporary World a.  Case Study 1: Archaeology of the Hippies (1960s) Olompali St. Park, Breck Parkman Burdell Mansion; Chosen Family Commune, Grateful Dead; Late 1960s – Time of Cultural Rebellion (Anti­War); Media Portrayal of  Hippies: Beads/Sandals, Health Food (Vegetarians), Heavy Party People, (Hard Rock,  Drugs), Sexual Revolution; Kent’s “Tour of the Communes”  – Late 1960s Ethnographic Observations; Breck Parkman’s (state park archaeologist. Agency Archaeologist), Excavation of  Burdell Mansion 1997/Analysis of materials in 2009; Findings ­­ Both Expected and Unexpected: they are writing their own histories but there  are still false facts. Hippies of San Francisco bay in early 70s. 1967­1969. Place of the  Grateful Dead. A commune of the chosen family. 1969 the center of the commune burned down. It was a time of cultural rebellion. “Make peace not war”. The written record  showed the following basic material record: long hair, tied dye, organic foods, beads,  vegetarians, heavy partiers, hard core rock and rule, drugs, and sexual revolution. San  Francisco was the heart of this. Participant observation anthropology­ going out and  doing things. When catastrophe happens they cant move things and an instant of time  stopped. Burning preserves some organic materials. Estfestis was in the debris. Analysis  took place in 2009/2010. Provides a snapshot of what was happening in this time.  i) Clothing and Personal Items (Artifacts)­ lots of personal items were recovered. Lots of  beads and headbands. Guitar picks and drugs found too. Buttons and spoons, alarm,  toothpaste. The unexpected: cosmetic creams, makeup, purse, jack set, monopoly hotels. ii) Music (from Vinyl Records)­ almost 100 vinyl records. Categorized the albums. Some were expected but had random things.  iii) Food Consumption ­ lot of beer. The amount of meat bones was surprising. They  were not on a vegetarian diet.  Conclusion: Archaeology of Daily Practice of Hippies, Not What You Might Expect  from Media Reports; We give stereotypical observations but end up getting a glimpse of  the diversity and the reality. Get a perception of stuff that wasn’t expected. There is a  whole different perspected.  Take Home Point: Archaeology: More Fuller, Intimate Picture of Past b)  Case Study 2: William Rathje – “Garbage Project” i) Analyze garbage collections from households ii) Excavate Landfills– 9 US cities Garbology; Garbologists Findings: People Distort Reality in Own Accounts Tendency to Tell Fibs/Lies People Under Report/Over Report: i) Alcohol Consumption ii) Certain Food (Lean Cuisine Syndrome) Implications: Tendency to Distort Reality Case Study – Kent Lightfoot Study of Neighborhood Garbage Summarize:  i) Garbage  Does Not Lie ii) Cautionary Tale When Read Historical  Documents, be careful about what people  write;  iii) Great for Studying Historical Period; Archaeology ­ Complements Written Records, Independent Data Source to Evaluate  Historical  Records; Archaeology of Colonialism; iv) Archaeology great for studying Contemporary Material Culture;   Anthro 2AC 9/2/2016   Read: Rathje and Murphy 2001 II. WHY STUDY ARCHAEOLOGY? 2.  Study of Recent History C.  Study of Contemporary World­ usually doesn’t link archaeology to contemporary world.  Helps address select representation and biases. The study of material culture can tell you much  about people. In most cases, we are dealing with people’s garbage (materials discarded or left  behind). People only taken what’s usable.  b) Case Study 2: William Rathje, “Garbage Project” shows you the great study of garage. Gives  great evidence of day­to­day lives. What people have thrown away can speak more  truthfully about their lives. i) Analyze garbage collections from households­ went into people neighborhoods and grouped  them into ethnicity, education, and money. ii) Excavate Landfills– 9 US cities and 4 in Canada­how we dispose garbage  Garbology; Garbologists­study of garbage Findings: 250,000 lbs of garbage. Household garbage included self­reports (kept own daily  diaries.  People Distort Reality in Own Accounts­ what they write down isn’t true. Cannot trust their  views of their daily. People tend to under or over report their lives.  Tendency to Tell Fibs/Lies People Under Report/Over Report: i) Alcohol Consumption­ how much they were drinking compared to what they said.  People would under report it. Talk about discrepancies and they would fib. Wouldn’t  admit in in self­reports. Under report it by 40­60%. Increase in drinking when new  alcohol store opens. Heavy drinking when people get paid.  ii) Certain Food (Lean Cuisine Syndrome)­ people usually under report fatty foods. Over  report healthy foods. They eat sugar 94% more than they say.  Implications: Tendency to Distort Reality. When people lie in self­reporting. Garbage can tell the truth. Case Study – Kent Lightfoot Study of Neighborhood Garbage­ sequence based on layered. Find the timetable. He  hates Deano Summarize:  i) Garbage Does Not Lie­ tells you much about people. Tells about diet and social  culture. Critical window of the past. It democratizes the past. Makes a beter balance of  the past.  ii) Cautionary Tale When Read Historical Documents, be careful about what people  write; past accounts tend to fib. People tend to distort reality. Reading historical accounts, may have a bias observations. iii) Great for Studying Historical Period; Archaeology of colonialism. Compliments  written records. Connecting the dots.  Archaeology ­ Complements Written Records, Independent Data Source to Evaluate  Historical  Records; Archaeology of Colonialism; iv) Archaeology great for studying Contemporary Material Culture; Archaeology is great  for contemporary world. Using the theory and method to study people’s material culture.  3.  Diachronic   (time depth)  Study of Cultural Change + Continuity –one of the most powerful  things in archaeology A.  Micro­Scale – Short­term Changes­ taking place relatively rapidly. Deano’s garbage B.  Macro­Scale – Long­term Changes; Longue Durée­ 100s or 1000s of years.  Archaeology Can Address Changes at Different Scales of Analysis­persistance and  resilient societies. Can address fundamental questions about changes in societies or  groups. What factors are contributed for change.  C.  Historical Anthropology – approach usually different data sets.  Employ Different Data Sets (Lines of Evidence) i) Ancient History or Prehistoric Period­ archaeologists usually study in one of  these. In California, goes back 13,000 years.  Prehistoric Archaeology, Oral Traditions. Long term perspective. Uses accounts  (things left behind)  and talking to these tribes.  ii) Historical Period ­archaeologists usually studies in one of these.  Historical Archaeology, Written Documents,  Ethnographic (trained cultural anthropologists with native peoples) Accounts, Oral  Traditions, Oral Histories (their own stories) Archaelogy is the base line of the study of  long term changes iii) Contemporary Times­ talking about today D.  Cultural Anthropology – Synchronic (don’t have a long time span), Detailed. Done at the  micro­scale. Provides a wealth of information of day­to­day lives.  Study of People; Details of Latest Sequence in Long­Term  Development of Human Societies extends back into ancient times. Can understand the  roots. Employ different methods. 


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