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Human Development Chapter 2

by: Meghan Skiba

Human Development Chapter 2 HD 101

Meghan Skiba

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Human development introductory course- chapter 2 notes
Intro To HUman Development
Erin Miller
Class Notes
Human Development
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Erin Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro To HUman Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Human Development Chapter 2 August 30, 2016 FROM  CONCEPTION TO  BIRTH The Beginning of Life First, the universal all living things = cells that promote growth and sustain life according to  instructions in their molecules of DNA DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule that containing the chemical instructions for cells to make proteins promotes growth and sustains life Chromosomes molecules of DNA consists of 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs Zygote two gametes (sperm and ova) combine and produce a new individual 23 chromosomes from each parent Gametes  reproductive cells (sperm and ova)  each gamete consists of 23 chromosomes How Proteins Are Made cell  nucleus  chromosome  DNA molecule (TAGC) Variations Among People Triplet Variations variation occur because DNA code contains 3 billion pairs organized into triplets Genetic Variations and Similarities       Genes are passed down from generation to generation Genotype an organism’s genetic inheritance or genetic potential unique for each organism Phenotype observable characteristics of an organism Overall many genes are identical for every human being some genes vary slightly in their codes from one person to another Allele  variation of a gene or any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular  trait can occur effects of variations vary greatly from causing life threatening conditions to  having no detectable effect at all   ex: hair color, height, eye color Uncertain Sex “ambiguous genitals” make child’s sex not abundantly clear analysis of chromosomes is needed o make sure there are 46 chromosomes and  rd see if the 23  is male or female  The Human Genome Genetic Diversity distinguishes each person allows the human species to adapt to pressures of the environment Genome involves the full set of genes that are instructions to make an individual member  of a certain species Male and Female Humans possess 46 chromosomes 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes females: XX males: XY sex of offspring depends on whether the father’s Y sperm or X sperm fertilizes the ovum Twins monozygotic (identical) originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development incomplete split results in conjoined twins same genotype but slight variations in phenotype are possible due to  environmental influences dizygotic (fraternal) result from fertilization of two separate ova by two separate sperm dizygotic twins have half their genes in common and occur twice as often  as monozygotic twins incidence is genetic and varies by ethnicity and age  Genetic Interactions Almost every trait is: polygenic (affected by many genes) multifactorial (influenced by many factors) Regulator Genes: direct the interactions of other genes, controlling their genetic expression,  duplication, and transcription are responsible for differences between species Additive Genes: add something to some aspect of the phenotype add up to make the phenotype Dominant­Recessive Heredity Dominant gene is far more influential than the recessive gene Dominant gene can completely control the phenotype with no noticeable effect of  recessive gene Effect of recessive genes can sometimes be noticed Carrier person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype unexpressed gene occurs in half of the carrier’s gametes and is passed on  to half of the carrier’s offspring offspring can be carrier or express the gene in the phenotype From Zygote to Newborn Three main periods of prenatal development 1. Germinal Period 2. Embryotic Period 3. Fetal Period      Development begins at conception      Full term: 9 months Vulnerability During Prenatal Development Germinal Period: st nd 1  to 2  week zygote begins duplication and division within hours after conception development of the placenta implantation (10 days after conception) organism grows rapidly an estimated 60% of all zygotes do not grow or implant properly and thus  do not survive the germinal period Embryonic Period: rd th 3  week to 8  week primitive streak becomes neural tube and forms the brain,  spine of CNS head takes shape, ears, eyes, nose, mouth forms, heart pulsates extremities develop and webbed fingers and toes separate about 20% of all embryos are aborted spontaneously (miscarriage) Fetal Period: 9  week until birth longest period genitals form and sex horomones cause differences in brain organization at 3 months, the fetus weighs about 3 ounces experiences the period of greatest brain growth in 4, 5, and 6 months about 5% of all fetuses are aborted spontaneously before viability at 22  weeks or are stillborn, defined as born dead after 22 weeks. This is more common in poor  nations (age of viability : age at which a preterm newborn may survive outside the  mother’s uterus if medical care is available­ about 22 weeks after conception)  Birth: fetal brain signals the release of horomones to trigger the femals’s uterine  muscles labor is average 12 hours for first child; shorter for later children apgar scale: quick assessment of newborn’s heart rate, breathing, muscle  tone, color, and reflexes both 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. Desired score >7 because of all these factors, only about 31% of all zygotes grow and  survive to become living newborn babies Prenatal Growth of The Brain 25 days 50 days 100 days 20 weeks 38 weeks (full term) Medical Intervention     Infant mortality has decreased due to better medical care     Childbirth has become safer for mothers     Excessive medical care also has disadvantages Cesarean Section: surgical birth fetus can be removed quickly usually safe for mother & baby,saving lives when fetal head is too large for pelvis Traditional and Modern Birthing Practices Home births Hospital births Doula The New Family: The Newborn Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes Reflex an unlearned, involuntary action or movement in response to a stimulus, a reflex  occurs without conscious thought.  Postpartum Depression many women experience significant physical problems after birth problems incisions from C­section, sore nipples, and urination problems psychological symptoms range from “baby blues” to postpartum psychosis may involve struggles with adequate baby care varied causes Father’s Role helping mother stay healthy helping mother manage stress experiencing couvade (symptoms of pregnancy)  in some cultures Problems and Solutions Chromosomal miscounts about once in ever 200 births, an infant is born with 45, 47, or even 48 or 49  chromosomes – which produces a syndrome most common condition is Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21) Abnormal Genes Gene disorders phenotype is only affected when the inherited gene is dominant or when both  parents carry the recessive gene most dominant disorders begin in childhood (fatal dominant childhood conditions  cannot be passed on) recessive disorders are more common Examples Huntington’s disease Cystic Fibrosis Thalassemia Sickle Cell Disease Fragile X Harm To The Fetus Taratogens any agent or condition, including viruses and drugs, resulting in birth defects or  complications Behavioral Teratogens agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future  child’s intellectual and emotional functioning  Risk Analysis Crirical period timing first days and weeks are critical for body formation final months are important for body weight health during the entire fetal period is important for brain development Threshold Effect certain teratogens are relatively harmless until exposure reaches a certain level Alcohol embryos exposed to mother’s heavy drinking can develop fetal alcohol syndrome  Genetic Vulnerability some zygotes carry genes that make them vulnerable male fetuses are more vulnerable to teratogens than female ones neural tube defects are more common in certain ethnic groups (Irish, English) Before Pregnancy What prospective mothers should do before pregnancy plan take a multivitamin avoid drinking update immunization reach appropriate weight reassess prescription drug use develop exercise habits Prenatal Testing some serious conditions can be diagnosed and treated during pregnancy 20% of this testing raises anxiety parents may not want to know information Ex; alpha fetoprotein (AFP test) false positives and false negatives Preterm or Slow Growing preterm birth that occurs at 35 or fewer weeks after conception low birthweight low: <5.5 lbs very low: < 3 lbs, 5 oz extremely low: < 2 lbs, 3 ox small for gestational age birthweight is significantly lower than expected, give  the time since conception suggests impairment throughout prenatal development and serious problems maternal behavior  maternal health and illness maternal drug use before and during pregnancy maternal malnutrition fathers and others father’s attitudes and behaviors immigrant paradox Consequences of Low Birthweights high risk infants and children every developmental accomplishment is late cry more, pay attention less, etx=c


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