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Chapter 2 Notes: The Nervous System

by: Willow Rector

Chapter 2 Notes: The Nervous System PSCH 103-02

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Psychology (PSYC) > PSCH 103-02 > Chapter 2 Notes The Nervous System
Willow Rector
C of C

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be tested on the first test of the semester
Intro to Psycological
Tina M. Russell-Brown
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willow Rector on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCH 103-02 at College of Charleston taught by Tina M. Russell-Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psycological in Psychology (PSYC) at College of Charleston.

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Date Created: 09/04/16
Chapter 2 Notes: The Nervous System: Nervous System:  Nervous system: Carries information to and from all parts of the body Neuroscience:  Neuroscience: the study of neural structures, behavior, and learning Structure of a Neuron:  Axon: carrier of the message from neuron to neuron  Dendrite: reviews the message  Soma: body of neuron  Myelin: coats most of the axon; acts as a protector and promotes the signal to make it  faster  Glial cells: maintains the neuron and makes the myelin Schwann’s Membrane:  Coating on top of myelin to help nerves repair themselves Neural Impulse:  Acts on an all or nothing system. The neuron either fires completely or not at all. o Resting Potential: When neuron is at rest and it is not firing  o Action Potential: when the neuron is firing o Right after the action potential, the neuron goes back to the resting potential o At resting potential: the positive sodium ions are on the outside, negative sodium  ions are on the inside. When the action potential fires, they switch positions,  positive ions on the inside and negative ions on the outside, then go immediately  back to their original position with the resting potential The Synapse:  The entire bulb­like structure at end of the neuron. Inside are vesicles and inside the  vesicle are neural transmitters o Once the neuron has fired, it releases the neural transmitters into the synaptic gap. Some land on the next dendrite, some don’t fit and it stays in the fluid of the  synaptic gap and get cleaned up by enzymes or they are taken back into the  neuron through the process of reuptake Neuron Communication:  Excitatory neurotransmitter: causes receiving cell to fire o Agonists mimic/enhance neurotransmitter effect on receptor sites  Inhibitor neurotransmitter: causes receiving cell to stop firing o Antagonists block/reduce cell’s response to other neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters:  Acetylcholine: excitatory or inhibitory; involved in arousal, attention, memory, and  controls muscle contractions  Norepinephrine: excitatory; involved in arousal and mood  Dopamine: excitatory or inhibitory; involved in control of movement and sensations of  pleasure  Serotonin: excitatory or inhibitory; involved in sleep, mood, anxiety, and appetite  Gaba­aminobutyric acid: inhibitory; involved in sleep and inhibits movement  Glutamate: excitatory; involved in learning, memory formation, nervous system  development, and synaptic plasticity  Endorphins: inhibitory neural regulators; involved in pain relief Branches of Nervous System:  Central Nervous System(CNS): controls brain and spinal cord o Spinal cord: bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and brain  Peripheral Nervous System(PNS): all nerves and neurons not contained in CNS. Allows  brain to communicate with senses o contains autonomic and somatic systems  Autonomic system takes care of involuntary muscles  Parasympathetic: maintains body systems at rest  Sympathetic: maintains adrenaline and body in motion  Somatic system controls voluntary muscles  Three Types of Neurons:  o Afferent (sensory): carry messages from senses to the spinal cord o Efferent (motor): carry messages from spinal cord to the muscles and glands o Interneurons: connect the sensory and motor neurons


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