BIOL 1105, week 2 notes
BIOL 1105, week 2 notes BIOL 1105
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Words'nNotes on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1105 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Eric P. Hogan in Fall 2016 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Macromolecules: Types of Macromolecules- Carbohydrates- used for energy storage and structural support Lipids- used for energy storage, membrane structure, and signaling Proteins- used for enzymes and structural support – Proteins make up 15% of a cell Nucleic Acids- used for the storage and expression of genetic information *Carbon is the framework for most biological molecules Functions of Macromolecules- Biological macromolecules are assembled from subunits Macromolecule Subunit Polymer Carbohydrates monosaccharides Polymer Nucleic acids nucleotides Polymer Protein amino acids Lipids fatty acids Nucleic acids- Made up of: sugar, nitrogenous base, and 1 or more phosphate groups Nitrogenous base: can be either a purine or and pyrimidine Purine: 2 ring, adenine, guanine, Pyrimidine: 1 ring, cytosine, thymine, uracil Carbohydrates: Mono and Polysaccharide structure- Monosaccharides: 1 sugar Covalent bonds store energy The chemical structure can vary even if the same number and types of atoms (Isomer) Linear or Ring structure Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides linked together covalently Bond created through a de-hydration reaction Polysaccharides: 3 or more monosaccharides linked together Nucleic Acids- Nucleotides Nucleic Acid RNA and DNA RNA- Uracil Both- Cytosine DNA- Thymine DNA: the two strands of DNA run antiparallel (in opposite directions), A::T, C::G, 2 Deoxyribose RNA: Ribose Protein: structure and function- Proteins are polymers of amino acids There are twenty different amino acids- 10 polar and 10 non-polar Positively charged amino acids are basic, while negatively charged amino acids are acidic Proteins have three sections: Amino group- bonded to central carbon Carboxyl group- bonded to central carbon Functional group (R)- side group or chain Amino acids are assembled through peptide bonds, covalent, created through de-hydration, catalyzed by the ribosome Amino acid sequence determines structure, which determines function Structure of proteins has several levels: Primary- amino acid sequence, covalent bonds Secondary- B sheets and alpha helix Tertiary- between distant amino acids, form loops, involve sidechains Quaternary- interactions between polypeptides Cells and Organelles: Cells were discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke Cell Theory- Three points: All living things have cells Cells are the smallest unit that can still be considered living Cells come only from other cells All cells have: A nucleus or nucleoid Cytoplasm Cytosol Ribosomes - which make proteins Phospholipid bi-layer Prokaryotic cells: No nucleus (nucleoid) Cell wall Have ribosomes 2 domains: Archaea, Bacteria Eukaryotic cells: Cytoskeleton Compartmentalization Complex Endomembrane system: the making of proteins- 1. Nucleus- DNA is transcribed into RNA 2. RNA is transported to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 3. Proteins are synthesized from the RNA 4. Proteins are then enclosed into vesicles and transported to the cis face of the golgi apparatus 5. The protein is modified in the golgi apparatus 6. The protein then exits through the trans face of the golgi apparatus 7. The proteins can stay in the cell or exit the cell Cell size is limited Limited size is due to a dependence on diffusion Diffusion rate is affected by Surface area Temperature Concentration gradient distance
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