New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

POLS 1101 Chapter 4 Reading Summary

by: nako.nako.nako

POLS 1101 Chapter 4 Reading Summary POLS 1101 08

GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

POLS 1101 Chapter 4 Reading Summary
American Government
April A Johnson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in American Government

Popular in Political Science & Int'l Aff. Department

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 08 at Kennesaw State University taught by April A Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science & Int'l Aff. Department at Kennesaw State University.


Reviews for POLS 1101 Chapter 4 Reading Summary


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/04/16
Civil Liberties Those rights, such as freedom of speech and religion, that are so fundamental that they are outside the  authority of government to regulate.  Civil liberties: gate, outside government’s authority to regulate  Civil rights: gateway, rights that government is obliged to protect Bill of Rights First ten amendments to the Constitution, which provide basic political rights. natural or unalienable rights Rights that every individual has and that government cannot legitimately take away. Liberty and Order James Madison argued in Federalist 10: if a majority wishes to infringe on rights, it often falls to the judiciary, which is  not designed to be responsive to public desires, to protect those rights writ of habeas corpus Right of individuals who have been arrested and jailed to go before a judge, who determines  whether their detention is legal. ex post facto make an act a crime after the act is committed Bills of attainder legislative acts that declare individuals guilty of a crime.  Incorporate Process of applying provisions of the Bill of Rights to the states. Barron v. Baltimore (1833)  the Bill of Rights applied to the national government only.  state governments could abridge freedom of speech, the press, and religion ex) During WWI, one citizen of Minnesota was convicted and sentenced to prison for stating that the war was a plot to  protect Wall Street investments, another for stating that America needed to be made more democratic. ex) 1920, when a Montana farmer spoke ill of the American flag and refused to kiss it, he was sentenced to ten to twenty  years of hard labor for violating a state law that prohibited bringing the flag into disrepute. Fourteenth Amendment (1868)  “life, liberty, or property” due process of law, privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States  total incorporation(supreme court never fully agreed)  to overturn the Barron v. Baltimore decision and make the entire Bill of Rights applicable to the states. selective incorporation Doctrine used by the Supreme Court to make those provisions of the Bill of Rights that are  fundamental rights binding on the states.   First, Second, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments have been incorporated rd th th th  exception: 3 (Quarter soldiers), 5 (grand jury indictment), 7 (Jury trials in civil suits over $20), 8 (excessive fines) compelling interest test Standard frequently used by the Supreme Court in civil liberties cases to determine whether a  state has a compelling interest for infringing on a right (for example, the law is necessary for the functioning of  government)  and whether the law is narrowly drawn to meet that interest. 1789 French Revolution  the US engaged in a limited and undeclared war with France over trade issues.   under Federalist govJohn Adams), Passed Sedition Act   When Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic­Republicans took power following the election of 1800, they pardoned  those convicted under the act, which had by then expired, and refunded the fines they had paid. Civil War  President Abraham Lincoln (1861–65)  military tribunals rather than by civilian courts  Military tribunals contain fewer procedural safeguards for defendants than do criminal trials, with a two­thirds vote  rather than unanimity required for conviction, lesser standards of evidence, and no habeas corpus protections.  Milligan, accused of aiding the Confederacy and was sentenced to hang by a military tribunal, the Supreme Court  declared in 1866 (after the war and the threat of secession ended) that the government had no authority to deprive  Milligan of his right to a trial by jury.  McCardle. a former Confederate soldier who had been convicted of writing “incendiary and libelous articles” about the  war, Pro­Union Congress removed the Supreme Court’s appellate jurisdiction over habeas petitions. WWI   Espionage Act of 1917 - antiwar activist Charles Schenck for circulating a flyer to draftees that compared the draft to the involuntary  servitude prohibited by the Thirteenth Amendment - Socialist Party presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs for giving a speech criticizing the war - Jacob Abrams called for a strike to protest sending American troops into Russia.  - marketplace of ideas Idea that the government should not restrict the expression of ideas because the people are  capable of accepting good ideas and rejecting bad ones.  After the war, Congress repealed the Sedition Act, and President Warren G. Harding (1921–23) pardoned Debs. Cold War  The McCarthy era was similar to the Red Scare in its agitated suspicion that opposition to the government was  Communist­inspired.  The government imprisoned hundreds of individuals for their political views, and thousands more lost their jobs.  Murrow’s a special show on McCarthy using McCarthy’s own speeches to demonstrate the extent to which he had been  dishonest in his charges, and it allowed the marketplace of ideas to flourish and led to McCarthy’s downfall. Vietnam War  a Senate investigation by Frank Church into the legality of COINTELPRO revealed that the FBI’s activities had  included illegal wiretapping, inciting violence, and encouraging Internal Revenue Service audits of suspects. 9/11 USA PATRIOT Act  allowed greater sharing of intelligence information and enhancement of law enforcement’s ability to tap telephone and  e­mail communications.  President George W. Bush (2001–2009) claimed the right to detain alleged enemy combatants indefinitely, whether U.S. citizens or foreign nationals. Jose Padilla  an American allegedly involved in a plan to detonate a radioactive bomb in the United States, an “enemy combatant”  and transferred him from civilian to military authority, where he would have few, if any, procedural rights.  Justice Department removed Padilla from military custody and charged him under federal criminal law with providing  material support to terrorist organizations.  Freedom of Speech  clear and present danger test First Amendment test that requires the state to prove that there is a high likelihood that  the speech in question would lead to a danger that Congress has a right to prevent.  “Fighting words” are phrases that might lead the individual to whom they are directed to respond with a punch.  Hate speech: attacks or demeans a group rather than a particular individual  symbolic speech Actions, such as burning the flag, that convey a political message without spoken words.  content­neutral Free speech doctrine that allows certain types of regulation of speech, as long as the restriction does  not favor one side or another of a controversy. Freedom of Press  prior restraint Government restrictions on freedom of the press that prevent material from being published. - New York Times v. United States (1971) Even when the New York Times began publishing excerpts from a top­secret  Pentagon analysis of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, the courts refused to stop the presses.  - Edward Snowden leaked info, but government did not attempt to prevent the news media from publishing it - Julian Assange’s Wikileaks   Penalties for libel and for publishing obscenity, incitement to acts of violence, and secret military information.  For private figures to sue for libel, the material must be false and damaging, and there must be some degree of  negligence, but the actual malice test does not apply.  Miller test Supreme Court test for determining whether material is obscene. - (1) to the average person, applying contemporary community standards as established by the relevant state, the work,  taken as a whole (not just isolated passages), appeals to the prurient (sexual) interest - (2) the work depicts in an offensive way sexual conduct specifically defined by the state law - (3) the work lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.  Right of association  If a group discriminates for no apparent purpose, however, state laws can limit the right of association.   Minnesota has the right to prevent the Jaycees from discriminating against women because the presence of women does  not violate any of the expressive interests of the Jaycees. Free Exercise of Religion  Anglican Church was established as the official religion in England  Williams established a colony in what would become Rhode Island that was the first to grant religious “liberty of  conscience  Maryland’s Toleration Act (1649) guaranteed freedom of worship to all Christians, including Catholics  free exercise clause First Amendment clause protecting the free exercise of religion.  valid secular (nonreligious) purpose Supreme Court test that allows states to ban activities that infringe on religious  practices as long as the state has a nonreligious rationale for prohibiting the behavior.  conducting a military draft, polygamy use of the hallucinogenic drug peyote in religious rituals The Establishment of Religion  establishment clause First Amendment clause prohibiting governmental establishment of religion.  James Madison fought tax assessments used to support Christian religious teachers  Separationists (liberal) Thomas Jefferson “wall of separation” Disestablishment Bill in 1786  Accommodationists (conservative) believe that as long as the state does not favor one religion over another, it can  generally pass laws that support religion.  Lemon test Test for determining whether aid to religion violates the establishment clause. - Under this test, a challenged law must be shown to have a secular (nonreligious) legislative purpose and a primary  effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion. - ruled that “intelligent design”—a view that claims that the world is too complex to have resulted from evolution and  that there must have been a purposeful designer of the universe (that is, God) The Right to Keep and Bear Arms  “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms,  shall not be infringed.”  (At the time of the amendment’s passage) militia = all free, able­bodied adult males  1934 National Firearms Act did the federal government attempt to regulate gun ownership  McDonald v. Chicago states could not ban private possession of guns for self­defense.  prohibiting the private possession of firearms by the District of Columbia, which is a “federal enclave” Searches and Seizures  expectation of privacy Supreme Court test for whether Fourth Amendment protections apply.  if the police see illegal goods in plain view, they may seize them without a warrant.  - This right now permits the police to conduct strip searches of arrestees entering the general population of a jail, even for the most minor violations, such as driving without a seat belt.  there is no expectation of privacy, such as discarded garbage, someone else’s home, a hotel room once one has  checked out, or an international border.   police may require Breathalyzer tests of people suspected of drunk driving, but blood tests require a warrant.  Searches of homes almost always require a warrant (and thus probable cause).  exclusionary rule Supreme Court rule declaring that evidence found in violation of the Fourth Amendment cannot be  used at trial. - Mapp v. Ohio (1961) - good faith exception allows evidence to be used if the police obtain a warrant but the warrant is later found to lack  probable cause. - “inevitable discovery” exception allows illegally obtained evidence to be used if the court finds that the evidence  would have been discovered even without the illegal search. Interrogations  Miranda v. Arizona 1.  they have the right to remain silent, 2.  anything they say may be used against them, and 3.  they have the right to an attorney, free if they cannot afford one. Trial Procedures  Fifth Amendment requires indictment by a grand jury, which indicts by majority vote.   The Sixth Amendment’s right to counsel originally meant that defendants could have an attorney represent them if they  could afford one.  Powell v. Alabama (1932) - undoubtedly false allegations of rape filed against several black youths  Gideon v. Wainwright   The Sixth Amendment also guarantees the right to a trial by an impartial jury.   the Court now allows juries as small as six people, and twelve­person juries need not decide unanimously. Double Jeopardy  prevents the person from being tried again for the same offense.   if the jury cannot reach a verdict, the government can retry the defendant.  if the defendant is found guilty at trial, but the conviction is overturned on appeal, the defendant may be tried again.  The Supreme Court does allow a defendant to be tried separately for the same offense by the state government and the  federal government Sentencing  Eighth Amendment’s prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment.   On the death penalty, however, the Supreme Court ruled in 1972 that the complete discretion given to juries as to which  people are convicted of capital crimes was so arbitrary as to constitute cruel and unusual punishment. Appeals  Convicted criminals do not have a right to appeal a trial court conviction unless a federal constitutional right has been  violated.  Birth Control and Abortion  Comstock Laws a law prohibiting the transportation in interstate commerce of both pornography and birth control.  Griswold v. Connecticut - Griswold, executive director of the Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut, opened a birth control clinic in order  to get arrested or fined so that she could challenge the constitutionality of the law. - right to privacy Constitutional right inferred by the Court that has been used to protect unlisted rights such as sexual  privacy and reproductive rights, plus the right to end life­sustaining medical treatment.  ten states passed laws allowing abortion if there was a “substantial risk” that the child would be born with a “grave  physical or mental defect” or that continuing the pregnancy would “gravely impair the physical or mental health of the  mother” and in cases of rape or incest.  Roe v. Wade 1973 Supreme Court case extending the right to privacy to abortion. - regulating abortion during the second trimester to protect the health of the woman seeking the procedure. - preventing abortion in the third trimester, when the fetus could live on its own  According to the Court, spousal notification constitutes an undue burden, but requiring doctors to provide the woman  with information about the risks of abortion and a twenty­four­hour waiting period does not.  Parental consent for minors is not an undue burden as long as the minor has an option of seeking a judge’s approval if  she cannot obtain a parent’s consent. Homosexual Behavior  As of 1961, every state had laws prohibiting sodomy, and these laws were broad enough to cover virtually all sexual  conduct between people of the same sex.  Lawrence v. Texas 2003 Supreme Court case extending the right to privacy to homosexual behavior. - “the liberty protected by the Constitution allows homosexual persons the right to choose to enter upon relationships in  the confines of their homes and their own private lives” The Right to Die  a constitutional right to terminate life­sustaining care, such as artificial feeding or insertion of breathing tubes.  This right does not, however, include the right to assisted suicide, when physicians or family members provide ill people with pills or other means of ending life. Student Housing  The Supreme Court rejected the use of the right to privacy to strike down laws that ban more than two unrelated  unmarried people from living together in the same house or apartment. Political tolerance Willingness of people to put up with ideas with which they disagree.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.