POLS 1101 Chapter 11 Reading Summary
POLS 1101 Chapter 11 Reading Summary POLS 1101 08
Popular in American Government
Popular in Political Science & Int'l Aff. Department
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 08 at Kennesaw State University taught by April A Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science & Int'l Aff. Department at Kennesaw State University.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Competing View of Participation the Constitution makes the states the prime players in setting voting requirements. Suffrage Right to vote; also called franchise. Hamilton model - Accountability, efficient and effective outcomes. - place much more faith in the ability of elites than in the ability of the general public to make the right decisions. The people, they contend, are often uninformed and cannot make the best choices. Jefferson model - Equality, more participation - believed that the people can be trusted and that getting more people involved will push government to be more responsive to the people’s interests. They contend that if certain groups of people are disenfranchised, government will be less responsive. People may not be well informed about politics, but if they have a chance to be involved, they will become better informed. overall trend has been constant expansion Expansion of Voting, 1790s to 1870 For first 9 votings, popular votes were not recorded across all the states. Most state didn’t allow the public to cast ballots for president State legislators chose electors and senators. white males who owned a certain amount of property or paid a certain amount of taxes could vote for House of Rep. Slaves could not vote, and free black males often did not have the right to vote. In New Jersey, women who owned property could vote from 1776 until 1807, when the right was rescinded. Franchise Right to vote; also called suffrage. 1824 presidential election - None of the four candidates won a majority in the Electoral College, though Andrew Jackson won the most popular votes (41 percent), so the election was decided by the House of Representatives. - “corrupt bargain” Henry Clay, who had come in third, threw his support to John Quincy Adams, who had come in second, thereby enabling Adams to win the presidency. Once in office, President Adams (1825–29) named Clay secretary of state. Determined to get Jackson elected to office the next time, people pressed states to remove property requirements for voting and to allow to vote for president instead of state legislatures. In 1828 election, turnout tripled to more than 1.1 million votes cast and produced a landslide for Jackson, who won 56% of the popular votes and 2/3 of the Electoral college vote. The Road to Women’s Suffrage, 1848 to 1920 In 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, the first women’s rights meeting initiated a movement for women’s suffrage. Susan B. Anthony, a leader in the National Woman Suffrage Association, worked tirelessly for most of her life to secure women the right to vote. In 1869, the territory of Wyoming granted the right to women, and that right was retained when Wyoming became a state in 1890. Turnout Share of all eligible voters who actually cast ballots. With the inclusion of women as eligible voters, turnout fell to 49 percent in both 1920 and 1924. By 1984, women voted at a slightly higher rate than men—a trend that continues today. The Denial of African American Suffrage, 1870 to 1965 South Carolina—the first state to secede and the first to fire on federal troops—to elect the first African American member of the House of Representatives, Joseph Rainey, in 1870. 1876 election. Neither the Democrat Samuel Tilden nor the Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won a majority. Jim Crow Southern laws that established strict segregation of the races and gave their name to the segregation era. Literacy tests Tests requiring reading and interpretation skills in order to vote. Poll taxes Tax on voting; prohibited by the TwentyFourth Amendment (1964). Poll taxes 2$ in the South Carolina poll tax would be equivalent to about $1,000 today. grandfather clauses Election rules that exempted people from difficult literacy and interpretation tests for voting if their grandfathers had been eligible to vote. white primary Election rules that prohibited blacks from voting in Democratic primaries. In Smith v. Allwright, ruled the white primary unconstitutional in 1944. The Civil Rights Movements and African American Voting, 1950s and 1960s Democratic Party dominance ensured the continuation of Solid South, a voting bloc critical to all Democratic presidential candidates from Woodrow Wilson (1913–21) to Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933–45) to John F. Kennedy (1961–63), who therefore did not push for civil rights. Boycotts, sitins, and marches called attention to the lack of equal treatment for African Americans in the South, and public support for ending the legal barriers grew. Civil Rights Act, which protected voting rights and put severe restrictions on the administration of literacy tests. Voting Rights Act in 1965, which effectively ended literacy tests and other strategies that had discriminated against African Americans at the polls and gave the Justice Department the authority to supervise voter registration in locales that had discriminated. voter registration Enrollment required prior to voting to establish eligibility. 14 amendment banned poll taxes a huge upswing of voter participation in the South. Voter apathy in the South has declined as wealth has risen, and Democratic Party dominance has ended as well. the South was also poorer than much of the rest of the country, and poverty generally depresses turnout. voter apathy Lack of interest in voting and in politics generally. The Latino Vote Literacy tests, as applied to Latinos, were Englishlanguage tests. Katzenbach v Morgan. did not break down all the gates because it did not require that voter registration, ballots, and other voting materials be made available to nonEnglishspeaking voters in their native language. In 1975, Congress extended the Voting Rights Act to include “Language Assistance Amendments.” While turnout rates have been pretty flat, the number of eligible Latino voters has grown from 13.2 million to 23.7 million since the year 2000. (10% of electorate) The Vote for 18yearolds, 1971 26 Amendment, the right to vote to anyone age 18 or over. (before most of states were 21) Vietnam War heightened awareness of the fact that young men were being sent off to fight at age 18 but could not participate in elections. President Richard M. Nixon (1969–74) supported it even though he knew from polling data that the young voters were not likely to support him in the upcoming 1972 presidential election. Turnout Presidential elections are highstimulus events Midterm congressional elections are lowstimulus elections (usually less than 40%) primary elections during presidential nominations turnouts are even lower The Demographics of Turnout people who are most likely to vote tend to be better educated, better paid, and older than those who are unlikely to vote the driving force of participation is the development in young people of the kinds of skills and habits that prepare an individual for active citizenship. Sex: Women turn out at a slightly higher rate than men, by perhaps 3 to 5 percentage points. Women tends to support Democrats. Age: Turnout peaks once voters are about 60 years old. youngest votingage citizens (18–24) esp. blacks climbed to more than 49 percent in 2008, from 36 percent in 2000. Income: The higher one’s income, the more likely one is to vote. They are likely to be in environments in which politics is frequently discussed and that provide greater opportunities for learning about the political process. Education: higher education, the more likely one is to vote. Rather than education, it is having been raised in an environment that stresses the importance of education that shapes willingness to vote. An Economic Model of Voting all choices involve calculations about selfinterest that balance costs and benefits selfinterest Concern for one’s own advantage and wellbeing. According to the economic model, citizens consider the costs and benefits of voting; when the benefits exceed the costs, they turn out to vote. Anthony Downs, An Economic Theory of Democracy. voting is not in one’s selfinterest and in fact is irrational. rational voting Economic model of voting wherein citizens weigh the benefits of voting against the costs in order to take the most personally beneficial course of action. He points out that there are some costs tied to voting, such as the time it takes to become informed, to register to vote, and to go to the polls. If benefits are defined in a narrow, selfinterested fashion, there are no tangible benefits to be had from voting. the chance that one vote will alter the outcome of the election is very small—so small, in fact, that there is a greater chance of being killed in an accident on the way to the polls than of changing the outcome of the election. claimed that people voted because they knew that the system would collapse if no one voted. civic duty Social force that binds a person to actively participate in public and political life. The notion of civic duty is important, but the argument describes a psychological attitude voters might have. A Psychological Model of Voting The psychological model views participation in elections as a product of citizens’ attitudes about the political system. Attitudes are often a product of socialization and early political experiences and formed in childhood. civic interest Concern for the wellbeing of society and the nation as a whole. “it’s my duty to always vote.” a strong correlation between civicmindedness and the propensity to vote. Partisanship. Citizens who align themselves with the Democratic Party or the Republican Party are more likely to vote. citizens who express greater trust in government are more willing to participate. Efficacy Extent to which people believe their actions can affect public affairs and the actions of government. An Institutional Model of Voting institutional model Model of voting that focuses on the context of the election, including whether it is close and whether the rules encourage or discourage participation. This model does not ignore individuals’ personal resources or psychological attitudes; it simply points out that the political environment is a factor that shapes participation. that the popularity and appeal of the candidates affect turnout. Competitiveness A close race they think their votes might influence the outcome. Getoutthevote drives, direct personal contact, text Is Voting in Your Genes? James Fowler and his colleagues found a strong relationship between genes and turnout. “that two extensively studied genes are significant predictors of voter turnout.” Weather Rain significantly reduces voter participation by a rate of just less than 1 percent per inch, and an inch of snowfall decreases turnout by almost 0.5 percent. These scholars go on to show that bad weather benefits Republicans slightly by discouraging lesswelloff voters from participating, giving weather a potential partisan bias. Is Turnout Low? Compared to other democracies(90% or more), turnout in the United States is low(57%). compulsory voting Practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or face punitive measures such as community service, fines, or imprisonment. Those who do not vote must pay a $20 fine, and the fine increases to $50 if the nonvoter does not answer the Australian Election Commission’s inquiry about why he or she did not vote. In most of the countries of Western Europe, the government is responsible for registering citizens to vote. Federal law stipulates that the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November is the day on which voting for president and members of Congress will take place, and most states have also selected Tuesdays as the day for voting in primaries and in state and local elections. With more costs to voting, turnout is lower in the United States than in many European democracies. votingage population (VAP) Used to calculate the rate of participation by dividing the number of voters by the number of people in the country who are 18 and over. Turnout today is less than it was fifty years ago. Even though education levels have increased over the past fifty years, the rate of participation in elections has not increased. generational replacement Cycle whereby younger generations replace older generations in the electorate. decline of party organizations, drop in mobilization efforts. increasingly harsh tone of political campaigns. negative campaigns have fueled voter apathy. negative attacks can activate partisanship, which also increases turnout. There is another explanation that actually contends that turnout has not declined over the last forty years: The VAP measure has been in error because it does not take into account increases in the number of immigrants and convicted felons who are ineligible to vote. votingeligible population (VEP) Used to calculate the rate of participation by dividing the number of voters by the number of people in the country who are eligible to vote rather than just of voting age. In fact, turnout is now a full 10 percentage points higher than in the presidential election of 1948, when it was 52 percent Do Turnout Rates Create Inequality? As the rich become richer, they become better able to contribute more money to parties and candidates. Focusing on the behavior of U.S. senators, Bartels shows that they respond more to the rich, less to people of middle income, and not at all to the poor. Reforms to Voting Laws in the 1890s Bigcity political machines routinely “stuffed” the ballot box, and party members manipulated the results to ensure victory. Turnout in some cities exceeded 100 percent, meaning that not only were some people voting who should not have been but also that some were voting multiple times. graveyard voting Corrupt practice of using a dead person’s name to cast a ballot in an election. Progressives called for voter registration voters would have to preregister with a government official to be placed on an official list of voters. But the new registration laws made voting a twostep process, requiring potential voters to document, before the election, that they met the conditions for voting. While it reduced fraud, decreased the strength of the party machines, and pleased Americans who were worried about the impact of immigrants, it caused an overall decline in turnout. adoption of the Australian ballot “secret ballot” instead of party strips. It meant that voters faced less intimidation. The National Voter Registration Act “Motor Voter” law, requires states to allow citizens to register to vote at the same time they apply for or renew their driver’s licenses. requires states to inform citizens who are removed from the approved voter rolls and limits removal to a change of address, conviction for a felony, and, of course, death. These requirements were in response to charges that local governments, controlled by political parties, improperly removed voters from the voter rolls without their knowledge; under the guise of updating voter registration lists, officials of one party were disqualifying voters who would tend to vote for the other party’s candidates. New Forms of Voting early voting, allowing voters to cast ballots before the Tuesday on which a general election is held. It gives flexibility and “you don’t have to stand in long lines on election day.” votebymail (VBM) system Method of voting in an election whereby ballots are distributed to voters by mail, and voters complete and return the ballots by mail. Voters get ballots in the mail two weeks before the election, giving them a chance to research the candidates and cast their ballots. some states have begun to reverse those laws and reduce the availability of early voting, eliminated sameday voter registration, and enacted new strict photo identification requirements. opponents of using technologies argue that they would be too susceptible to voter fraud for two reasons - First, there would be no way to identify the person who is casting the vote, unless citizens are given individual pin codes or use their Social Security numbers. - Second, votes at polling places are counted by election officials, but Internet and cell phone voting data would likely be collected and counted by computer servers, which are vulnerable to hacking and other security breaches. Involvement in Political Campaigns Campaigns give citizens a chance to talk about politics, volunteer, promote issues they care about, and make financial donations to candidates and causes. According to a survey done in 2012, more than 60 percent of Americans indicate that they discuss politics at least once a month. the proportion of people who work in a campaign has been small and very stable over the past three decades, hovering around 3 percent. If active citizens are defined as individuals who vote and engage in at least one of the activities (tired to influence other’s votes, attended a political meeting, worked for a party/candidate, wore a button/displayed a bumper sticker, gave money to a campaign) about 40 percent have met the standard over this twentyeightyear period. Protest Politics the Tea Party movement has recast American politics. It began with protests against the nearly $800 billion stimulus package, which Congress passed in 2009 in the hopes of ending the steep economic downturn that began in 2008. By 2014, the influence of the Tea Party had started to wane, as more establishment Republicans won nearly all the important Senatorial primaries. In 1932, in the midst of the Great Depression, army veterans seeking early payment of their World War I bonuses descended on Washington, D.C. President Herbert Hoover ordered them to leave, and when some did not, he sent federal troops to disperse them. Hill v. Colorado,the Supreme Court upheld the right of states to limit protests near sites that conduct abortions McCullen v. Coakley decision cut back onHill by unanimously striking a Massachusetts law that had kept antiabortion protestors at least 35 feet from health facilities that perform abortions High rates of protest activities in other democracies can be attributed to strong labor parties—some of them socialist and Communist—that make protests common and symbolic. EParticipation Recent figures are not available, but the use of email to contact members of Congress has surely exploded over the past decade, underscoring the ease and convenience of email and transforming the way voters communicate with politicians. Participating in politics by writing a blog, tweeting, or using other ecommunications will continue to rise. The Internet has also transformed fundraising and campaign involvement. While 2008 can be thought of as the year of the small Internet donor, 2012 can be thought of as the year of the mega donor. New regulations permit the rich, including corporate entities, to form Super PACs and contribute unlimited amounts to support or oppose political candidates as long as they do not coordinate directly with candidates or parties.
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