POLS 1101 Chapter 13 Reading Summary
POLS 1101 Chapter 13 Reading Summary POLS 1101 08
Popular in American Government
Popular in Political Science & Int'l Aff. Department
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by nako.nako.nako on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 08 at Kennesaw State University taught by April A Johnson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science & Int'l Aff. Department at Kennesaw State University.
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Constitutional Eligibility and Presidential Succession Constitution states that the president must be a naturalborn citizen (or a citizen at the time the Constitution was adopted), at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for at least fourteen years. th 12 amendment changed the process so that candidates are elected for president and vice president separately. The amendment also directs that the vice president must meet the same eligibility requirements as the president and that electors cannot vote for both a president and a vice president from the elector’s home state. The Constitution also states that when the president is removed from office by death, resignation, or inability to perform the duties of the office, the vice president becomes president. There was no constitutional provision for replacement of the vice president, and in the course of the nation’s history, the office has occasionally been vacant. 21st Amendment, ratified in 1967, required the president to nominate a replacement vice president, who must bendpproved by a majority vote of the House and the Senate. 22 amendment limits the president to 2 elected terms. Because a president in his second term cannot seek reelection, he is commonly referred to as a . lame duck Termlimited official in his or her last term of office. Lame duck status therefore has the advantage of giving the president more political freedom, but the disadvantage of making him less directly responsive to public opinion. Background and Experience in 1984 Walter Mondale made history by selecting Geraldine Ferraro as the first woman to run for vice president. Lyndon Baines Johnson (1963–69) was very successful in passing his domestic policy agenda in large part due to his experience as a House member, U.S. senator, and Senate majority leader. His prior experience taught him crucial negotiating skills with members of Congress, and he used his skills to their fullest extent. The Expansion of the Presidency President George Washington had the enormous responsibility of setting the standard for how a president should govern in a democracy, and he was very careful not to infuse the office with airs of royalty or privilege. the nation grew in size, population, and economic power. The job of the chief executive grew accordingly, but, though increasingly demanding and complex, it remained essentially focused on national defense and economic growth Its role in World War II and the subsequent Cold War against the Soviet Union expanded the authority of the presidency. imperial presidency Power of the president to speak for the nation on the world stage and to set the policy agenda at home. Schlesinger’s view suggests that as long as the United States is engaged in military conflicts all over the world to promote and protect its interests, the president will be considered the most important figure in American politics. Commander in Chief commander in chief Leader of the armed forces of the United States. The president is the commander in chief of the armed forces of the United States, which includes the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, plus their Reserve and National Guard units. Congress, however, has the power to officially declare war and to authorize funding for the war effort. Power to Pardon The president has the power to grant clemency, or mercy, for crimes against the United States, except in the case of impeachment from federal office. Clemency is a broad designation that includes a pardon (forgiving an offense altogether) and a commutation (shortening a federal prison sentence). Election considerations can also come into play because presidents who are in their first term may want to appear tougher on crime than in their second term, when they will not be seeking reelection. Treaties and Recognition of Foreign Nations The president or his designated representative has the power to negotiate and sign treaties with foreign nations, but he must do so with the “Advice and Consent of the Senate,” as specified by the Constitution. For a treaty to be valid, twothirds “of the Senators present” must approve. The president also enters into executive agreements, which do not require Senate approval and tend to be less expansive in scope than treaties. The president’s authority in foreign affairs includes the power to “receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers,” which allows the president to recognize the legitimacy of foreign regimes. Executive and Judicial Nomination The president has the power to appoint all federal officers, including cabinet secretaries, heads of independent agencies, and ambassadors. The presidential appointment process has two steps: nomination, and subsequent approval by a majority of the Senate. In recent years, this process has become more ideological and contentious; rather than considering only qualifications for the job, presidents and members of the Senate also consider a nominee’s ideological views on key issues The president has the power to fire federal officers but not to remove judges, who can be removed only by impeachment. Veto and the Veto override Veto Authority of the president to block legislation passed by Congress. Congress can override a veto by a twothirds majority in each chamber. pocket veto Automatic veto that occurs when Congress goes out of session within ten days of sub mitting a bill to the president and the president has not signed it. To counter the power of the veto, the Framers gave Congress the veto override, the power to overturn a presidential veto with a twothirds vote in each chamber. Congress has learned to get around the threat of a presidential veto by passing omnibus bills that include provisions affecting a number of issue areas. omnibus bills One very large bill that encompasses many separate bills. These bills are costly to veto because they affect a wide range of voters and generate a lot of public support, so they give Congress an advantage in negotiating with the president. Presidents naturally tend to veto more bills when Congress is controlled by the opposite party, a condition known as divided government. President Clinton and Congress differed over the size of cuts in entitlement programs such as Medicare, the health care program for the elderly entitlement programs Federal programs, such as Social Security, Medicare, or Medicaid, that pay out benefits to individuals based on a specified set of eligibility criteria. Clinton vetoed two omnibus funding bills that Congress sent him, resulting in the shutdown of the entire government both times. In this case, the president used the threat of more vetoes to get members of Congress to produce legislation closer to his policy positions. Other Powers the chief agenda setter for domestic and foreign policy. over time, smaller tasks assigned to the president in the Constitution have evolved into powerful tools for influencing legislation. State of the Union address Speech on the condition of the country given by the president to Congress every January. Over the past century, presidents have turned this obligation into an opportunity to outline a broad policy agenda for the nation. the president can call Congress into a special session to consider legislation or to hear him deliver an important speech. Congress’s Ultimate Check on the Executive: Impeachment the president, vice president, and all civil officers (including cabinet secretaries and federal judges) are subject to removal for “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.” Impeachment Process whereby the House brings charges against the president or another federal official that will, upon conviction by the Senate, remove him or her from office. the House Judiciary Committee investigates charges and recommends to the full House whether to impeach or not. If the House votes to impeach a federal officer, the Senate holds a trial, and if the president is impeached, the chief justice of the Supreme Court presides. If twothirds of the senators vote to convict, the official is removed from office. Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton have been impeached, but neither was convicted by the Senate, and both remained in office. Richard M. Nixon - Watergate, after the name of a complex in Washington where the Democratic National Committee had its headquarters. - In August, the Washington Post reported that the bank account of one of the five men caught in the act and arrested had $25,000 in funds originally given to the Nixon 1972 reelection campaign. - Nixon denied any connection and was reelected in the fall, but all the while he and his aides were working to cover up the fact that his reelection committee had ordered the breakin to install listening devices on Democratic Party phones - As connections between Nixon and the breakin were revealed, several of his aides were convicted of conspiracy, burglary, and wiretapping, and others resigned. - President Nixon turned over a limited number of tapes, but there was an eighteenandahalfminute gap on one tape, and Congress wanted to know what was discussed during that time and why it was erased - executive privilege President’s right to engage in confidential communications with his advisers. - The justification for this privilege is that the president must make difficult choices and, without the guarantee of privilege, may not receive or deliver the fullest information in the course of his deliberations. - States v. Nixon when on July 24, 1974, it unanimously ruled that executive privilege is not absolute and must give way when the government needs the information for a trial. - In 1975, Nixon’s successor, former Vice President Gerald R. Ford (1974–77), pardoned Nixon of all federal offenses he might have committed. Presidential Directives and Signing Statements Presidenetial directives Official instructions from the president regarding federal policy. Ex) executive orders, proclamations, military orders primary way that presidents shape policy implementation, and they are the instruments presidents use to act quickly in national emergencies. executive order Presidential directive that usually involves implementing a specific law. Typically, executive orders instruct federal employees to take a specific action or implement a policy in a particular way. President Eisenhower responded by issuing a proclamation calling on the governor to cease and desist, and when the governor ignored the proclamation to enforce school integration in Little Rock, Arkansas. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer, better known as the Steel Seizure case, the Supreme Court ruled against Truman, claiming he had no statutory authority from Congress to seize the mills and that his commander in chief status did not allow him to seize domestic property when the United States was at Korean war in a foreign land In foreign and military affairs, presidents can issue presidential directives on national security, which have a similar purpose to executive orders but are not published in the Federal Register, which is the official record of government regulations When a president signs a bill into law, he can issue signing statements, written remarks that reflect his interpretation of the law that are not required or authorized by the Constitution. signing statements Written remarks issued by the president when signing a bill into law that often reflect his interpretation of how the law should be implemented. Nonconstitutional statements are typically symbolic, celebrating the passage of the law or providing technical instructions for implementing a new law. Constitutional statements are more serious in that the president uses them to indicate a disagreement with Congress on specific provisions in the law. Many presidents, from Lincoln to Franklin Delano Roosevelt to George W. Bush, have taken temporary actions that have violated constitutional rights in the name of national security, from suspending habeas corpus to interning Japanese Americans to eavesdropping on U.S. citizens Power to Persuade President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909) described the office of the president as a bully pulpit, where presidents could use the attention associated with the office to make a public argument in favor of or against a policy. bully pulpit Nickname for the power of the president to use the attention associated with the office to persuade the media, Congress, and the public to support his policy positions. The key to using the bully pulpit effectively is to explain a policy in simple and accessible terms, to get the public’s attention, and to frame an issue in a way that is favorable to the president’s policy position. A president’s relationship with the members of the news media is a crucial factor in successful communication, and it has evolved dramatically over time. Press conferences are somewhat risky because, unlike speeches, presidents do not control the content of the questions that are asked, and they can sometimes make unrehearsed statements that have political consequences. Several factors affect a president’s power to persuade, notably his professional reputation and his approval ratings. A presidential approval rating is usually expressed as the percentage of the American people who say the president is doing a good job. A president’s professional reputation is a combination of his prior experience and the steps he takes throughout his term. Agenda Setting In dealing with foreign powers, the president is head of state and commander in chief of the military. head of state Title given to the president as national leader. Upon their recommendation, the president proposes new treaties or revisions to existing agreements as needed. power of the Senate to ratify treaties and the power of Congress to appropriate money for federal programs, including foreign aid and diplomatic programs. Power Struggles between the President and Congress Vietnam and the War Powers Act - Vietnam had been a divided nation since 1954, with Communist forces controlling North Vietnam and antiCommunists controlling South Vietnam, and a civil war had erupted between them. - In 1964, however, President Johnson presented evidence to Congress that the North Vietnamese were attacking U.S. ships on patrol duty in international waters in the Gulf of Tonkin off the shore of North Vietnam. - By 1968, the United States had more than five hundred thousand troops in Vietnam, and the conflict was commonly referred to as the Vietnam War, although there was never a formal declaration of war by Congress - Nixon broadened the conflict to the neighboring countries of Cambodia and Laos in his efforts to win the war. - War Powers Act The 1973 act which provides that the president cannot send troops into military conflict for more than a total of ninety days without seeking a formal declaration of war, or authorization for continued military action, from Congress. - The irony of the War Powers Act is that it gives presidents an incentive to seek a declaration of war or authorization to use military force, after which time Congress loses much of its control of the operation of the conflict. In other words, once Congress gives the president permission to go to war, it is next to impossible for Congress to stop the war - In other words, once Congress gives the president permission to go to war, it is next to impossible for Congress to stop the war The Iraq War - The Iraq War began in 2003, but its origins date back to August 1990, when Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait. - This act of aggression prompted multilateral military action known as the Gulf War, which aimed to push Iraq out of Kuwait. - Although there had been no concrete evidence of such weapons, President George W. Bush argued that a preemptive strike against Iraq was necessary to preserve the security of the United States. - By 2006, with violence in Iraq at a high level, the Democrats in Congress—many of whom had initially supported the war—withdrew their support and called for the return of all U.S. troops and an end to the war. The Afghanistan War - The war in Afghanistan began after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were traced back to alQaeda operatives harbored by the Afghan Taliban regime. - as the number of American and Afghan casualties increased, public support for the war decreased, and it was hard for President Obama to maintain U.S. involvement there. - The Republicans’ takeover of the House of Representatives in the 2010 election complicated his decision making because they publicly resisted efforts to reduce the U.S. presence in Afghanistan until the government could demonstrate it had defeated the Taliban and alQaeda. - In 2012, President Obama and Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta announced their intention to work with the Afghanistan government to reduce the number of U.S. troops in Afghanistan at a faster rate. Uprisings in Foreign Lands - When in March 2011 President Obama authorized the use of air strikes and drones in Libya, he was acting in conjunction with NATO forces to enforce a UN Security Council resolution that authorized international military action to enforce a nofly zone to stop the Libyan leader, Muammar alQaddafi, from committing violence against his own people. - Nevertheless, some members of Congress argued that the air strikes violated the War Powers Act because the president had not formally notified Congress of military involvement there. - by October 2011, the rebel forces had prevailed, and Qaddafi was killed as he resisted capture. - Unlike Libya, President Obama did not propose intervening in the Syrian conflict, although the United States did support a UN resolution condemning the violence committed by President Bashar alAssad’s regime against protesters. - However, Obama worked with the United Nations and Russia to broker a deal whereby Syria agreed not to use chemical weapons and to turn over all chemical weapons to the United Nations for safe destruction. Power Struggles between the President and the Judiciary Following 9/11, President Bush greatly expanded the powers of the executive branch of government. Ex) Created separate military tribunals to try captured terrorists, claimed exemption from the Geneva Convention rules on the treatment and detainment of prisoners, and authorized the National Security Agency to monitor conversations of suspected terrorists with residents of the United States without obtaining warrants. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld decision rejected Bush administration attempts to deny habeas corpus protections to an enemy combatant who was a U.S. citizen because federal law prohibits such denial to U.S. citizens. The Bush administration then established special military tribunals to review the detention of enemy combatants at Guantanamo Bay, but the Court rejected the authority of the tribunals because Congress had not authorized them. The Executive Office of the President The president runs a large organization known as the Executive Office of the President (EOP), a loosely knit unit of several key organizations that report directly to him. White House Office; the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), the National Security Council (NSC); and the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA). The fact that George W. Bush relied so heavily on Cheney to make key decisions elevated the power, visibility, and even controversy of the role of the vice president. President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Executive Office of the President, and his decision in 1939 to move the Bureau of the Budget from the Treasury Department to the EOP gave him more direct control over the federal budget. A key change in the structure of the EOP occurred when President Dwight D. Eisenhower, a highly decorated army general who was accustomed to a formal chain of command, appointed the first chief of staff, Sherman Adams. chief of staff Person who coordinates and oversees interactions among the president, his personal staff, and his cabinet secretaries. He serves as a gatekeeper by controlling the flow of staff and paperwork and focuses the president’s attention on key issues. The chief of staff also monitors the coherence of presidential policies across cabinet departments and can serve as a referee for disagreements among members of the president’s senior staff. Another important element in presidential productivity is staff continuity, and new presidents often bring former executive branch personnel into their administrations. One of the effects of a lame duck presidency is that many members of the president’s inner circle start to leave the administration as it enters its final two years. However, presidents can counteract that loss by replacing the departed advisors with staff who have also worked for the administration, just in different positions. The Office of the Vice President Twenty years after the Carter presidency, George W. Bush allowed his vice president, Richard (Dick) Cheney, to play a prominent role in the nation’s military and foreign policy. The fact that George W. Bush relied so heavily on Cheney to make key decisions elevated the power, visibility, and even controversy of the role of the vice president. Vice presidents can push policies forward even when the president is reluctant to do so The Office of the First Lady wife of the president has always been seen as an important partner in the president’s social and diplomatic activities and as caregiver in the event of a health crisis, her role as a public advocate on policy issues emerged in the twentieth century. Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was widely believed to hold considerable sway over her husband’s views, but her most public moment as first lady came in 1939 when she came to the defense of Marian Anderson, a famous African American opera singer. The modern office of the first lady has no formally stated responsibilities, but the first lady has a staff that includes a press secretary, a scheduler, and speechwriters. Since Eleanor Roosevelt, first ladies have often taken on single issues to champion, such as Lady Bird Johnson on nature conservation; Betty Ford on alcoholism; Rosalynn Carter on mental health; Nancy Reagan on drug addiction; Barbara Bush on literacy; Hillary Clinton on health care, women’s rights, and child welfare; and Laura Bush on reading and education. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (193045): The New Deal and WWII New Deal Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s program for ending the Great Depression through government intervention in the economy and development of a set of safetynet programs for individuals. The creation of the Securities and Exchange Commission and other laws relating to banking and finance helped restore confidence in banks and the stock market. The National Labor Relations Act established federal oversight of working conditions, labor standards, and labor disputes. The Social Security program, a pension program to which workers contributed through a payroll tax that was also paid by employers, further entwined business and government. Franklin Roosevelt used the bully pulpit and advanced the use of communication technology in the office of the president. Ex) fireside chat, newsreels, press conference Roosevelt took a personal role in negotiating legislative deals with members of the House and Senate, which were controlled by the Democrats. The Court had struck down several of Roosevelt’s favored policies, often by closely divided votes, and his so called Courtpacking plan would have allowed him to appoint additional justices and secure a majority favorable to him. Lyndon Baines Johnson (196369): The Great Society and Vietnam Great Society Lyndon Johnson’s program for expanding the federal social welfare programs in health care, education, and housing and for ending poverty. In the area of race relations, he persuaded Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, which together formed a powerful set of laws protecting the rights of African Americans and subsequently the rights of other minority groups as well He created two major federal health insurance programs: Medicaid, a health insurance program for the poor, and Medicare, a health insurance program for the elderly. He was also responsible for creating the Food Stamp Program, the School Lunch Program, Head Start, the Job Corps, and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. He compensated for his lack of communication skills by relying more heavily on his very strong negotiation skills. Johnson made sure that his programs would benefit all poor people, white and black, rural and urban. By creating wide eligibility criteria, Johnson almost guaranteed that every congressional district in the country would receive some benefit from the programs. Although Johnson’s personal relationship with the press and the public started out reasonably well, as U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War escalated, the press began to distrust him, and many journalists believed he was not being candid about the war with them and the American people. In fact, negative reporting on the progress of the Vietnam War, combined with significant health concerns, was among the reasons that Johnson ultimately chose not to seek reelection, a decision he announced on March 31, 1968. Ronald Reagan (198189): The Reagan Revolution and the End of the Cold War Reagan believed that the New Deal and the Great Society had combined to weaken individual initiative and responsibility. When he took office, he mounted an aggressive campaign to scale back federal programs that provided benefits to individuals without asking for anything in return. Tax cuts were the first thing on Reagan’s agenda for two reasons. First, he believed that if taxes went down, the economy would flourish. Second, he knew that if tax revenue went down and spending increased, federal deficits would be created. He took a firm stand against the Soviet Union, which he perceived as a direct threat to the United States and as a major promoter of Communism throughout the world. Ronald Reagan is referred to as the “Great Communicator” because he came across very well on television In January 1986, when the space shuttle Challenger blew up shortly after takeoff as millions of Americans watched their TVs in horror, Reagan’s words eased the national pain In late 1986, the Irancontra scandal erupted when it was revealed that members of the National Security Council were selling U.S. weapons to Iran for cash, which was then given to the contra resistance movement in Nicaragua that was fighting the Communistleaning Sandinista regime. Although Reagan enjoyed relatively consistent popularity and was perceived as highly responsive to his base of supporters, his record came under greater scrutiny after he left office because his policies produced higher federal budget deficits and reduced funding for programs for the disadvantaged.
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