Chapter 7 Continued and Chapter 8
Chapter 7 Continued and Chapter 8 PSYC 1010
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie Markoff on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Cannon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Chapter 7 Continued and Chapter 8 Problems with physical punishment 1. punished behaviors may restart when the punishment is over 2. instead of learning behaviors, the child may learn to discriminate among situations and avoid those in which punishment might occur 3. punishment can teach fear 4. physical punishment models aggression as a method of dealing with problems 5. punishing focuses on what not to do, and it does not guide people to a desired behavior. • Reinforcement teaches you what to do • in order to teach desired behavior, reinforce what’s right more often than punishing what’s wrong Applications of Operant Conditioning School and Parenting: • rewarding small improvements toward desired better than expecting complete success, and also works better than punishing problem behaviors • ie sticker chart and after 20 stickers you get a prize Sports: • athletes improve the most in shaping ap proach in which the reinforced Work • pay raise, incentive, recognition Self improvement 1. state a realistic goal in measurable terms 2. decide how/when/where you will work toward goal 3. monitor how often you engage in desired behavior 4. reinforce the desired behavior 5. reduce the rewards gradually Role of Biology in conditioning Biological constraints on conditioning: • can a monkey be trained to peck with it’s nose? no, but a pigeon can • can a pigeon be trained to dive under water? no, b ut a dolphin can • an animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology Classical conditioning • John Garcia and others found it was easier to learn associations that make sense for survival • food aversions can be acquired even if nausea does NOT immediately follow the NS. (even several hours later) • males in one study were more likely to see a pictured woman as attractive if the picture had a red border. (female primates display red when nearing ovulation) Cognitive processes In classical conditioning: • when the dog salivates at the bell, it may be due to cognition (learning to predict, even expect, the food) • knowing that our reactions are caused by conditioning gives us the option of mentally breaking the association In operant conditioning • in fixed-interval reinforcement, animals do more target behaviors around the time that the reward is more likely, as if expecting the reward • humans can respond to delayed reinforcers such as a paycheck • humans can set behavioral goals and plan their own reinforcers Learning, rewards and motivation • Intrinsic motivation- the desire to perform a behavior well for its own sake (ie running because you love how it makes you feel) • Extrinsic motivation - doing a behavior to receive rewards (ie running to get fit) • intrinsic motivation can be reduced by external rewards, and can be prevented by using continuous reinforcement • one principle for maintaining behavior is to use as few rewards as possible, and fade the rewards over time Learning by observation • Observational learning: watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning from their experiences • Modeling: the behavior of others serves a sa model, an example of how to respond in a situation • Vicarious conditioning: experienced indirectly throug h others Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment (1961) • kids saw adult punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors • these kids were then put in a toy deprived situation and acted out the same behaviors they had seen Mirroring the b rain • when we watch others doing or feeling something, mirror neurons fire patterns that would fire if we were doing the action or having the feeling ourselves • ie if you see someone in pain, you get uncomfortable • we can grasp others’ states of mind From mirroring to imitation • from 18 months of age, humans will over-imitate- routinely copy adult behaviors that have no function and no reward • children with autism are less likely to cognitively “mirror” and less likely to follow someone else’s gaze • we are born imitators that are supposed to understand each other Pro-social behavior • actions that benefit others, contribute value to groups, and follow moral codes and social norms • this behavior is taught best through modeling Anti-social behavior • actions that are harmful to individuals and society • children who witness violence in their homes may hate violence but still may become more violent than the average child • under stress, we do what is modeled for us Media Models for Violence • viewing media violence leads to increased aggression and reduced prosocial behavior this may be explained by: • Imitation- (mirror neurons, modeling) • desensitization toward pain in others • watching cruelty fosters indifference Chapter 8 - Memory Why do we have a memory? • to retain useful skills, knowledge, and expertise • to recognize familiar people and places • to build our capacity to use language • to enjoy, share and sustain culture • to build a sense of self that endures • to go beyond conditioning in learning from experience, including lessons from one’s past • Memory refers to the persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of information and skills 3 behaviors show that memory is functioning • recall • recognition • relearning How does memory work? - An information processing model • Encoding: getting info to your brain • storage: keeping it in your brain • Retrieval: reactivating and recalling the information exception to computer analogy • our memories are more fragile • prone to error • our brains process many things simultaneously by means of parallel processing Models of memory formation: The Atkinson- Shiffrin model 1. stimuli are recorded by our senses and held briefly in sensory memory 2. Some of this information is processed into short term memory and encoded through rehearsal 3. information then moves into long term memory where it can be retrieved later • more goes on in short term memory besides rehearsal; this is now called working memory Working memory: functions • The short term memory is working in many ways • in holds info not just to rehearse it, but to process it (such as hearing a word problem in math and doing it in your head) • working memory makes sense of new input and links it wi th long term memories Dual-track processing Explicit memories- • “declarative” memories are facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall • our minds acquire information through conscious effortful processing • ie studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing Implicit memories • information that goes directly to storage • these memories are typically formed through automatic processing Automatic processing: Our implicit memories include • procedural memory- automatic skills and well practiced kno wledge such as word meanings • conditioned associations • information about space • information about time • information about frequency Encoding: effortful processing strategies without active processing, short -term memories disappear Effortful processing strategy • a way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve • effortful processing is also known as studying Examples: • chunking (grouping) • mnemonics: images, maps, and peg -words • Hierarchies/categories Massed practice: • refers to cramming information all at once. it is not time effective The spacing effect: • you will develop better retention and recall if you use the same amount of study time spread out over many shorter sessions The testing effect • if your distributed practice includes self testing (having to answer questions about the material) effortful processing strategies deep/semantic processing: • when encoding information, we are more likely to retain it if we deeply process by focusing on the semantics (meaning) of the words • “shallow” unsuccessful processing refers to memorizing the appearance or sound of words Making information personally mean ingful • memorizing meaningful material takes one tenth the effort of memorizing nonsense syllables • rephrase what you see and hear into meaningful terms • the self referent effect, relating material to ourselves, aids encoding and retention Memory storage • memories are not in isolated files, but are in overlapping neural networks, distributed throughout the brain • the brain’s long term memory storage does not get full; it gets more elaborately rewired and interconnected Explicit memory processing: explicit /declarative memories • retrieval and use of explicit memories is directed by the frontal lobes • encoding and storage of explicit memories is facilitated by the hippocampus. events and facts are held there for a couple of days before consolidating - moving to other parts of the brain for long term storage. Implicit memory processing • the cerebellum forms and stores the implicit memories created by classical conditioning • (we can store a phobic response even if we can’t recall how we acquired the fear. ) • the basal ganglia controls movement, and forms and stores procedural memory and motor skills Infantile amnesia • implicit memory from infancy can be retained • However, explicit memories, our recall for episodes, only goes back to about age 3 for most people -> infantile amnesia Explanation: • encoding: hippocampus not fully developed • forgetting: adult mind thinks more in a linear verbal narrative and has trouble accessing preverbal memories Emotions, stress hormones, the amygdala, and memory • strong emotions, especially stress, can strengthen memory formation • when you go through something terrifying, you can’t forget it 1. emotions can trigger a rise in stress hormones 2. these hormones trigger activity in the amygdala 3. the amygdala increases memory-forming activity and engages the frontal lobes and basal ganglia to tag the memories as important • as a result, the memories are stored with more sensory and emotional details • these details can trigger rapid, unintended recall Brain processing of memory: Synaptic Ch anges • when sea slugs or people form memories, their neurons release neurotransmitters across the synapses • with repetition, the synapses undergo long term potentiation; signals are sent across the synapse more efficiently • synaptic changes include a reduction in the prompting needed to send a signal, and an increase in the number of neurotransmitter receptor sites Memory retrieval retrieval cues • memory is stored as a web of associations: • conceptual • contextual • emotional The power of priming • priming triggers a thread of associations and can affect us unconsciously • ie spell shop, what do you at a green light? stop • Study: people primed with a missing child poster then misinterpreted ambiguous adult-child interactions as kidnapping Context dependent memory • we retrieve a memory more easily when in the same context as when we formed the memory State dependent memory • memories can also be tied to the emotional state we were in when we formed the memory • mood congruent mem ory Forgetting • the case of H.M. • Removal of hippocampus to stop seizures • he could not form new long term memories and could not understand why his face looked older than 27 encoding failure • if we don’t pay attention to it and don’t encode it, we will never remember it Storage decay • material encoded into long term memory will decay if you don’t think about it Tip of the tongue: retrieval failure • sometimes associations and links fail Forgetting summary; • forgetting can occur at any memory stage Why is our memory full of errors: • memory gets constructed • memories can be continuously revised • ie hot air balloon experiment. people who were shown a fake photograph of them as a child on a hot air balloon fill in fake details
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