Intro to Statistics - Chapters 2 & 3
Intro to Statistics - Chapters 2 & 3 ESC_PS 4170 - 06
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Furtick on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ESC_PS 4170 - 06 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Beiner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to applied statistics in Math at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/04/16
Introduction to Applied Statistics Chapter 2 Objectives: I. Describe the scientific method in research A. The scientific method involves defining a problem, reviewing the literature dealing with the problem, formulating one or more hypotheses or questions related to the problem, collecting data to test each hypothesis empirically, analyzing the data, determining if each hypothesis is or is not supported, and interpreting the results of the investigation. II. Discuss reasons for conducting research A. To test theoretical concepts, to solve practical problems, to evaluate existing research findings, to test new hypotheses III. Define the different research methods discussed in this chapter A. Qualitative vs. Quantitative: Qualitative research is used to answer questions verbally and how the participants perceive and interpret aspects of the environment. Is unstructured and uses words and images. Quantitative research examines questions by gathering data in numerical form. B. Historical: is qualitative. Goal is to establish causal relationships among variables. They try to use primary documents. C. Ethnographic: was designed by anthropologists and relies on qualitative methods. Main means are participant observing and interviewing. D. Survey: Goal is to provide numerical description of how one or more variables are distributed among a population by asking people questions or by direct observation. E. Correlational: is there a relationship between two variables? It is used to determine the extent to which two or more variables are related. F. Group Comparison: The distribution of values of a single variable among two or more groups of people. May be experimental, quasiexperimental, or ex post facto. G. Singlesubject research: Researcher purposely alters the subject’s environment to determine how alteration affects the subject’s behavior. Definitions: ● Statistics collection, analysis, and interpretation of data ● Empirical research carrying out a firsthand investigation ● Basic research carried out to address one or more theoretical questions simply for purpose of addressing the questions ● Applied research carried out to solve reallife problems. (obtaining knowledge) ● Action research carried out to find what works in a particular situation with particular group of people (no generalizations) ● Evaluation research carried out to determine effectiveness of existing programs ● Descriptive statistics describes a sample/group ● Inferential statistics form guesses from information gathered ● Hypothesis used to test the validity of a statement Chapter 3 Objectives: I. Define the term hypothesis and explain the difference between a directional and nondirectional hypothesis. A. A hypothesis is a tentative, testable statement about relationships among variables. Nondirectional hypotheses make no attempt to specify direction; they merely indicate that differences or relationships exist. II. Discuss the primary function of laws pertaining to research using human subjects and how human subjects are protected. A. The benefits of a study need to outweigh the risks of people participating. Informed consent protects subjects because it ensures that they understand the nature of the study in which they are participating. They must be protected from both physical and mental damage and stress. III. Describe the various methods of sampling. A. Random sampling: samples are selected in a way that every member has an equal chance of being included. B. Stratified sampling: Systematic in the way that the population is broken down into smaller subgroups before choosing samples. C. Cluster sampling: random selection of sampling units of smaller sizes. D. Convenience samples: groups of people that were selected because of ease (convenience) IV. Discuss the issues associated with instruments designed to collect data. A. Validity and reliability are important in measuring instruments. Validity refers to how accurate the measure is and reliability refers to how likely the same score would be given if the instrument was used multiple times. Other factors associated with instruments to collect data are the true score and error score. The true score (or observed score) shows a person’s expected score over numerous times. We are unable to calculate the true score. Definitions: ● Thesis begins with a selection of a topic ● Concealment occurs when the researcher tells the truth, but omits information ● Deception occurs when the researcher purposefully gives false information ● Sampling theoretically representative of populations and are created in order to generalize research findings to populations ● Primary Source reports written by persons who have conducted research ● Secondary Source reports about research written by people other than the people who have conducted research ● Operational definition define variables and constructs in terms of how they are measured ● IRB Institutional Research Board ● Likert Scale present attitudinal statements and allow the subject to agree or disagree with the statements
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