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Intro to Statistics - Chapters 2 & 3

by: Amanda Furtick

Intro to Statistics - Chapters 2 & 3 ESC_PS 4170 - 06

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Math > ESC_PS 4170 - 06 > Intro to Statistics Chapters 2 3
Amanda Furtick
GPA 3.8
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The basic book and class notes from chapters 2 and 3.
Intro to applied statistics
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Furtick on Sunday September 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ESC_PS 4170 - 06 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Beiner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to applied statistics in Math at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/04/16
Introduction to Applied Statistics  Chapter 2  Objectives:  I. Describe the scientific method in research  A. The scientific method involves defining a problem, reviewing the literature  dealing with the problem, formulating one or more hypotheses or questions  related to the problem, collecting data to test each hypothesis empirically,  analyzing the data, determining if each hypothesis is or is not supported, and  interpreting the results of the investigation.  II. Discuss reasons for conducting research  A. To test theoretical concepts, to solve practical problems, to evaluate existing  research findings, to test new hypotheses  III. Define the different research methods discussed in this chapter   A. Qualitative vs. Quantitative: Qualitative research is used to answer questions  verbally and how the participants perceive and interpret aspects of the  environment. Is unstructured and uses words and images. Quantitative research  examines questions by gathering data in numerical form.   B. Historical: is qualitative. Goal is to establish causal relationships among variables.  They try to use primary documents.   C. Ethnographic: was designed by anthropologists and relies on qualitative methods.  Main means are participant observing and interviewing.   D. Survey: Goal is to provide numerical description of how one or more variables are  distributed among a population by asking people questions or by direct  observation.   E. Correlational: is there a relationship between two variables? It is used to  determine the extent to which two or more variables are related.  F. Group Comparison: The distribution of values of a single variable among two or  more groups of people. May be experimental, quasi­experimental, or ex post  facto.   G. Single­subject research: Researcher purposely alters the subject’s environment to  determine how alteration affects the subject’s behavior.     Definitions:   ● Statistics ­­ collection, analysis, and interpretation of data  ● Empirical research ­­  carrying out a first­hand investigation  ● Basic research ­­ carried out to address one or more theoretical questions simply for  purpose of addressing the questions  ● Applied research ­­ carried out to solve real­life problems. (obtaining knowledge)  ● Action research ­­ carried out to find what works in a particular situation with particular  group of people (no generalizations)  ● Evaluation research ­­ carried out to determine effectiveness of existing programs  ● Descriptive statistics ­­ describes a sample/group  ● Inferential statistics ­­ form guesses from information gathered   ● Hypothesis ­­ used to test the validity of a statement    Chapter 3  Objectives:  I. Define the term hypothesis and explain the difference between a directional and  non­directional hypothesis.  A. A hypothesis is a tentative, testable statement about relationships among  variables. Non­directional hypotheses make no attempt to specify direction; they  merely indicate that differences or relationships exist.   II. Discuss the primary function of laws pertaining to research using human subjects and  how human subjects are protected.  A. The benefits of a study need to outweigh the risks of people participating.  Informed consent protects subjects because it ensures that they understand the  nature of the study in which they are participating. They must be protected from  both physical and mental damage and stress.  III. Describe the various methods of sampling.  A. Random sampling: samples are selected in a way that every member has an equal  chance of being included.   B. Stratified sampling: Systematic in the way that the population is broken down into  smaller sub­groups before choosing samples.  C. Cluster sampling: random selection of sampling units of smaller sizes.   D. Convenience samples: groups of people that were selected because of ease  (convenience)   IV. Discuss the issues associated with instruments designed to collect data.  A. Validity and reliability are important in measuring instruments. Validity refers to  how accurate the measure is and reliability refers to how likely the same score  would be given if the instrument was used multiple times. Other factors  associated with instruments to collect data are the true score and error score. The  true score (or observed score) shows a person’s expected score over numerous  times. We are unable to calculate the true score.     Definitions:  ● Thesis ­­ begins with a selection of a topic  ● Concealment ­­ occurs when the researcher tells the truth, but omits information  ● Deception ­­ occurs when the researcher purposefully gives false information  ● Sampling ­­ theoretically representative of populations and are created in order to  generalize research findings to populations  ● Primary Source ­­ reports written by persons who have conducted research   ● Secondary Source ­­ reports about research written by people other than the people who  have conducted research  ● Operational definition ­­ define variables and constructs in terms of how they are  measured  ● IRB ­­ Institutional Research Board  ● Likert Scale ­­ present attitudinal statements and allow the subject to agree or disagree  with the statements    


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